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Last updated:
August 31, 2014, 04:03 UTC

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Views expressed in the content published here do not necessarily represent the views of Gentoo Linux or the Gentoo Foundation.


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Planet Venus

Welcome to Planet Gentoo, an aggregation of Gentoo-related weblog articles written by Gentoo developers. For a broader range of topics, you might be interested in Gentoo Universe.

August 30, 2014
Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)
Showing return code in PS1 (August 30, 2014, 23:14 UTC)

If you do daily management on Unix/Linux systems, then checking the return code of a command is something you’ll do often. If you do SELinux development, you might not even notice that a command has failed without checking its return code, as policies might prevent the application from showing any output.

To make sure I don’t miss out on application failures, I wanted to add the return code of the last executed command to my PS1 (i.e. the prompt displayed on my terminal).
I wasn’t able to add it to the prompt easily – in fact, I had to use a bash feature called the prompt command.

When the PROMPT_COMMMAND variable is defined, then bash will execute its content (which I declare as a function) to generate the prompt. Inside the function, I obtain the return code of the last command ($?) and then add it to the PS1 variable. This results in the following code snippet inside my ~/.bashrc:

export PROMPT_COMMAND=__gen_ps1
 
function __gen_ps1() {
  local EXITCODE="$?";
  # Enable colors for ls, etc.  Prefer ~/.dir_colors #64489
  if type -P dircolors >/dev/null ; then
    if [[ -f ~/.dir_colors ]] ; then
      eval $(dircolors -b ~/.dir_colors)
    elif [[ -f /etc/DIR_COLORS ]] ; then
      eval $(dircolors -b /etc/DIR_COLORS)
    fi
  fi
 
  if [[ ${EUID} == 0 ]] ; then
    PS1="RC=${EXITCODE} \[\033[01;31m\]\h\[\033[01;34m\] \W \$\[\033[00m\] "
  else
    PS1="RC=${EXITCODE} \[\033[01;32m\]\u@\h\[\033[01;34m\] \w \$\[\033[00m\] "
  fi
}

With it, my prompt now nicely shows the return code of the last executed command. Neat.

August 29, 2014
Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)
Gentoo Hardened august meeting (August 29, 2014, 14:43 UTC)

Another month has passed, so we had another online meeting to discuss the progress within Gentoo Hardened.

Lead elections

The yearly lead elections within Gentoo Hardened were up again. Zorry (Magnus Granberg) was re-elected as project lead so doesn’t need to update his LinkedIn profile yet ;-)

Toolchain

blueness (Anthony G. Basile) has been working on the uclibc stages for some time. Due to the configurable nature of these setups, many /etc/portage files were provided as part of the stages, which shouldn’t happen. Work is on the way to update this accordingly.

For the musl setup, blueness is also rebuilding the stages to use a symbolic link to the dynamic linker (/lib/ld-linux-arch.so) as recommended by the musl maintainers.

Kernel and grsecurity with PaX

A bug has been submitted which shows that large binary files (in the bug, a chrome binary with debug information is shown to be more than 2 Gb in size) cannot be pax-mark’ed, with paxctl informing the user that the file is too big. The problem is when the PAX marks are in ELF (as the application mmaps the binary) – users of extended attributes based PaX markings do not have this problem. blueness is working on making things a bit more intelligent, and to fix this.

SELinux

I have been making a few changes to the SELinux setup:

  • The live ebuilds (those with version 9999 which use the repository policy rather than snapshots of the policies) are now being used as “master” in case of releases: the ebuilds can just be copied to the right version to support the releases. The release script inside the repository is adjusted to reflect this as well.
  • The SELinux eclass now supports two variables, SELINUX_GIT_REPO and SELINUX_GIT_BRANCH, which allows users to use their own repository, and developers to work in specific branches together. By setting the right value in the users’ make.conf switching policy repositories or branches is now a breeze.
  • Another change in the SELinux eclass is that, after the installation of SELinux policies, we will check the reverse dependencies of the policy package and relabel the files of these packages. This allows us to only have RDEPEND dependencies towards the SELinux policy packages (if the application itself does not otherwise link with libselinux), making the dependency tree within the package manager more correct. We still need to update these packages to drop the DEPEND dependency, which is something we will focus on in the next few months.
  • In order to support improved cooperation between SELinux developers in the Gentoo Hardened team – perfinion (Jason Zaman) is in the queue for becoming a new developer in our mids – a coding style for SELinux policies is being drafted up. This is of course based on the coding style of the reference policy, but with some Gentoo specific improvements and more clarifications.
  • perfinion has been working on improving the SELinux support in OpenRC (release 0.13 and higher), making some of the additions that we had to make in the past – such as the selinux_gentoo init script – obsolete.

The meeting also discussed a few bugs in more detail, but if you really want to know, just hang on and wait for the IRC logs ;-) Other usual sections (system integrity and profiles) did not have any notable topics to describe.

August 22, 2014
Andreas K. Hüttel a.k.a. dilfridge (homepage, bugs)

As of today, more than 50% of the 37527 ebuilds in the Gentoo portage tree use the newest ebuild API (EAPI) version, EAPI=5!
The details of the various EAPIs can be found in the package manager specification (PMS); the most notable new feature of EAPI 5, which has sped up acceptance a lot is the introduction of so-called subslots. A package A can specify a subslot, another package B that depends on it can specify that it needs to be rebuilt when the subslot of A changes. This leads to much more elegant solutions for many of the the link or installation path problems that revdep-rebuild, emerge @preserved-rebuild, or e.g. perl-cleaner try to solve... Another useful new feature in EAPI=5 is the masking of use-flags specifically for stable-marked ebuilds.
You can follow the adoption of EAPIs in the portage tree on an automatically updated graph page.

August 19, 2014
Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)
Switching to new laptop (August 19, 2014, 20:11 UTC)

I’m slowly but surely starting to switch to a new laptop. The old one hasn’t completely died (yet) but given that I had to force its CPU frequency at the lowest Hz or the CPU would burn (and the system suddenly shut down due to heat issues), and that the connection between the battery and laptop fails (so even new battery didn’t help out) so I couldn’t use it as a laptop… well, let’s say the new laptop is welcome ;-)

Building Gentoo isn’t an issue (having only a few hours per day to work on it is) and while I’m at it, I’m also experimenting with EFI (currently still without secure boot, but with EFI) and such. Considering that the Gentoo Handbook needs quite a few updates (and I’m thinking to do more than just small updates) knowing how EFI works is a Good Thing ™.

For those interested – the EFI stub kernel instructions in the article on the wiki, and also in Greg’s wonderful post on booting a self-signed Linux kernel (which I will do later) work pretty well. I didn’t try out the “Adding more kernels” section in it, as I need to be able to (sometimes) edit the boot options (which isn’t easy to accomplish with EFI stub-supporting kernels afaics). So I installed Gummiboot (and created a wiki article on it).

Lots of things still planned, so little time. But at least building chromium is now a bit faster – instead of 5 hours and 16 minutes, I can now enjoy the newer versions after little less than 40 minutes.

August 14, 2014
Alexys Jacob a.k.a. ultrabug (homepage, bugs)

Foreword

Let’s say we have to design an application that should span across multiple datacenters while being able to scale as easily as firing up a new vm/container without the need to update any kind of configuration.

Facing this kind of challenge is exciting and requires us to address a few key scaffolding points before actually starting to code something :

  • having a robust and yet versatile application container to run our application
  • having a datacenter aware, fault detecting and service discovery service

Seeing the title of this article, the two components I’ll demonstrate are obviously uWSGI and Consul which can now work together thanks to the uwsgi-consul plugin.

While this article example is written in python, you can benefit from the same features in all the languages supported by uWSGI which includes go, ruby, perl ad php !

Our first service discovering application

The application will demonstrate how simple it is for a client to discover all the available servers running a specific service on a given port. The best part is that the services will be registered and deregistered automatically by uWSGI as they’re loaded and unloaded.

The demo application logic is as follows :

  1. uWSGI will load two server applications which are each responsible for providing the specified service on the given port
  2. uWSGI will automatically register the configured service into Consul
  3. uWSGI will also automatically register a health check for the configured service into Consul so that Consul will also be able to detect any failure of the service
  4. Consul will then respond to any client requesting the list of the available servers (nodes) providing the specified service
  5. The client will query Consul for the service and get either an empty response (no server available / loaded) or the list of the available servers

Et voilà, the client can dynamically detect new/obsolete servers and start working !

Setting up uWSGI and its Consul plugin

On Gentoo Linux, you’ll just have to run the following commands to get started (other users refer to the uWSGI documentation or your distro’s package manager). The plugin will be built by hand as I’m still not sure how I’ll package the uWSGI external plugins…

$ sudo ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~amd64" emerge uwsgi
$ cd /usr/lib/uwsgi/
$ sudo uwsgi --build-plugin https://github.com/unbit/uwsgi-consul
$ cd -

 

You’ll have installed the uwsgi-consul plugin which you should see here :

$ ls /usr/lib/uwsgi/consul_plugin.so
/usr/lib/uwsgi/consul_plugin.so

 

That’s all we need to have uWSGI working with Consul.

Setting up a Consul server

Gentoo users will need to add the ultrabug overlay (use layman) and then install consul (other users refer to the Consul documentation or your distro’s package manager).

$ sudo layman -a ultrabug
$ sudo ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~amd64" USE="web" emerge consul

 

Running the server and its UI is also quite straightforward. For this example, we will run it directly from a dedicated terminal so you can also enjoy the logs and see what’s going on (Gentoo users have an init script and conf.d ready for them shall they wish to go further).

Open a new terminal and run :

$ consul agent -data-dir=/tmp/consul-agent -server -bootstrap -ui-dir=/var/lib/consul/ui -client=0.0.0.0

 

You’ll see consul running and waiting for work. You can already enjoy the web UI by pointing your browser to http://127.0.0.1:8500/ui/.

Running the application

To get this example running, we’ll use the uwsgi-consul-demo code that I prepared.

First of all we’ll need the consulate python library (available on pypi via pip). Gentoo users can just install it (also from the ultrabug overlay added before) :

$ sudo ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~amd64" emerge consulate

 

Now let’s clone the demo repository and get into the project’s directory.

$ git clone git@github.com:ultrabug/uwsgi-consul-demo.git
$ cd uwsgi-consul-demo

 

First, we’ll run the client which should report that no server is available yet. We will keep this terminal open to see the client detecting in real time the appearance and disappearance of the servers as we start and stop uwsgi :

$ python client.py 
no consul-demo-server available
[...]
no consul-demo-server available

 

Open a new terminal and get inside the project’s directory. Let’s have uWSGI load the two servers and register them in Consul :

$ uwsgi --ini uwsgi-consul-demo.ini --ini uwsgi-consul-demo.ini:server1 --ini uwsgi-consul-demo.ini:server2
[...]
* server #1 is up on port 2001


* server #2 is up on port 2002

[consul] workers ready, let's register the service to the agent
[consul] service consul-demo-server registered succesfully
[consul] workers ready, let's register the service to the agent
[consul] service consul-demo-server registered succesfully

 

Now let’s check back our client terminal, hooray it has discovered the two servers on the host named drakar (that’s my local box) !

consul-demo-server found on node drakar (xx.xx.xx.xx) using port 2002
consul-demo-server found on node drakar (xx.xx.xx.xx) using port 2001

Expanding our application

Ok it works great on our local machine but we want to see how to add more servers to the fun and scale dynamically.

Let’s add another machine (named cheetah here) to the fun and have servers running there also while our client is still running on our local machine.

On cheetah :

  • install uWSGI as described earlier
  • install Consul as described earlier

Run a Consul agent (no need of a server) and tell him to work with your already running consul server on your box (drakar in my case) :

$ /usr/bin/consul agent -data-dir=/tmp/consul-agent -join drakar -ui-dir=/var/lib/consul/ui -client=0.0.0.0

The -join <your host or IP> is the important part.

 

Now run uWSGI so it starts and registers two new servers on cheetah :

$ uwsgi --ini uwsgi-consul-demo.ini --ini uwsgi-consul-demo.ini:server1 --ini uwsgi-consul-demo.ini:server2

 

And check the miracle on your client terminal still running on your local box, the new servers have appeared and will disappear if you stop uwsgi on the cheetah node :

consul-demo-server found on node drakar (xx.xx.xx.xx) using port 2001
consul-demo-server found on node drakar (xx.xx.xx.xx) using port 2002
consul-demo-server found on node cheetah (yy.yy.yy.yy) using port 2001
consul-demo-server found on node cheetah (yy.yy.yy.yy) using port 2002

Go mad

Check the source code, it’s so simple and efficient you’ll cry ;)

I hope this example has given you some insights and ideas for your current or future application designs !

August 11, 2014
Gentoo Monthly Newsletter: July 2014 (August 11, 2014, 00:00 UTC)

Gentoo News

Trustee Election Results

The two open seats for the Gentoo Trustees for the 2014-2016 term will be:

  • Alec Warner (antarus) First Term
  • Roy Bamford (neddyseagoon) Fourth Term

Since there were only two nominees for the two seats up for election, there was no official election. They were appointed uncontested.

Council Election Results

The Gentoo Council for the 2014-2015 term will be:

  • Anthony G. Basile (blueness)
  • Ulrich Müller (ulm)
  • Andreas K. Hüttel (dilfridge)
  • Richard Freeman (rich0)
  • William Hubbs (williamh)
  • Donnie Berkholz (dberkholz)
  • Tim Harder (radhermit)

Official announcement here.

Gentoo Developer Moves

Summary

Gentoo is made up of 242 active developers, of which 43 are currently away.
Gentoo has recruited a total of 803 developers since its inception.

Changes

The following developers have recently changed roles:

  • Projects:
    • mgorny joined Portage
    • k_f joined Gentoo-keys
    • zlogene joined Proxy maintainers
    • civil joined Qt
    • pesa replaced pinkbyte as Qt lead
    • TomWij removed himself from Bug-wranglers
    • Gentoo sound migrated to wiki
    • Artwork migrated to wiki
    • Desktop-util migrated to wiki
    • Accessibility migrated to wiki
    • Enlightenment migrated to wiki
  • Herds:
    • eselect herd was added
    • zlogene joined s390
    • twitch153 joined tools-portage
    • pinkbyte left leechcraft
    • k_f joined crypto

Additions

The following developers have recently joined the project:

  • Xavier Miller (xaviermiller)
  • Patrice Clement (monsieurp)
  • Amy Winston (amynka)
  • Kristian Fiskerstrand (k_f)

Returning Dev

  • Tom Gall (tgall)

Moves

The following developers recently left the Gentoo project:
None this month

Portage

This section summarizes the current state of the portage tree.

Architectures 45
Categories 162
Packages 17595
Ebuilds 37628
Architecture Stable Testing Total % of Packages
alpha 3658 561 4219 23.98%
amd64 10863 6239 17102 97.20%
amd64-fbsd 0 1577 1577 8.96%
arm 2681 1743 4424 25.14%
arm64 559 32 591 3.36%
hppa 3061 482 3543 20.14%
ia64 3189 612 3801 21.60%
m68k 618 87 705 4.01%
mips 0 2402 2402 13.65%
ppc 6838 2353 9191 52.24%
ppc64 4326 866 5192 29.51%
s390 1477 331 1808 10.28%
sh 1670 403 2073 11.78%
sparc 4114 898 5012 28.49%
sparc-fbsd 0 317 317 1.80%
x86 11535 5288 16823 95.61%
x86-fbsd 0 3237 3237 18.40%

gmn-portage-stats-2014-08

Security

Package Removals/Additions

Removals

Package Developer Date
perl-core/Class-ISA dilfridge 05 Jul 2014
dev-python/argparse mgorny 06 Jul 2014
dev-python/ordereddict mgorny 06 Jul 2014
perl-core/Filter dilfridge 07 Jul 2014
app-text/qgoogletranslator grozin 09 Jul 2014
dev-lisp/openmcl grozin 09 Jul 2014
dev-lisp/openmcl-build-tools grozin 09 Jul 2014
net-libs/cyassl blueness 15 Jul 2014
dev-ruby/text-format graaff 18 Jul 2014
dev-ruby/jruby-debug-base graaff 18 Jul 2014
games-util/rubygfe graaff 18 Jul 2014
perl-core/PodParser dilfridge 20 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-PodParser dilfridge 21 Jul 2014
perl-core/digest-base dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-digest-base dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
perl-core/i18n-langtags dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-i18n-langtags dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
perl-core/locale-maketext dilfridge 23 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-locale-maketext dilfridge 23 Jul 2014
perl-core/net-ping dilfridge 23 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-net-ping dilfridge 23 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-Switch dilfridge 25 Jul 2014
perl-core/Switch dilfridge 25 Jul 2014
x11-misc/keytouch pacho 27 Jul 2014
x11-misc/keytouch-editor pacho 27 Jul 2014
media-video/y4mscaler pacho 27 Jul 2014
dev-python/manifestdestiny pacho 27 Jul 2014
dev-cpp/libsexymm pacho 27 Jul 2014

Additions

Package Developer Date
www-client/vimb radhermit 01 Jul 2014
dev-util/libsparse jauhien 01 Jul 2014
dev-python/docker-py chutzpah 01 Jul 2014
dev-util/ext4_utils jauhien 01 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/base16-bytestring gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/boxes gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/chell gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/conduit-extra gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/cryptohash-conduit gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/ekg-core gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/equivalence gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/hastache gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/options gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/patience gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/prelude-extras gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/tf-random gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/quickcheck-instances gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/streaming-commons gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/vector-th-unbox gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/tasty-th gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/dlist-instances gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/temporary-rc gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/stmonadtrans gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/data-hash gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/yesod-auth-hashdb gienah 02 Jul 2014
sci-mathematics/agda-lib-ffi gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/lifted-async gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/wai-conduit gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/shelly gienah 02 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/chell-quickcheck gienah 03 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/tasty-ant-xml gienah 03 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/lcs gienah 03 Jul 2014
dev-haskell/tasty-golden gienah 03 Jul 2014
sec-policy/selinux-tcsd swift 04 Jul 2014
dev-perl/Class-ISA dilfridge 05 Jul 2014
net-wireless/gqrx zerochaos 06 Jul 2014
dev-perl/Filter dilfridge 07 Jul 2014
app-misc/abduco xmw 10 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-Math-BigRat dilfridge 10 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-bignum dilfridge 10 Jul 2014
dev-perl/Net-Subnet chainsaw 11 Jul 2014
dev-java/opencsv ercpe 11 Jul 2014
dev-java/trident ercpe 11 Jul 2014
dev-java/htmlparser-org ercpe 11 Jul 2014
dev-java/texhyphj ercpe 12 Jul 2014
dev-util/vmtouch dlan 12 Jul 2014
sys-block/megactl robbat2 14 Jul 2014
dev-python/fexpect jlec 14 Jul 2014
mail-filter/postfwd mschiff 15 Jul 2014
dev-python/wheel djc 15 Jul 2014
dev-ruby/celluloid-io mrueg 15 Jul 2014
sys-process/tiptop patrick 16 Jul 2014
dev-ruby/meterpreter_bins zerochaos 17 Jul 2014
sys-power/thermald dlan 17 Jul 2014
net-analyzer/check_mk dlan 17 Jul 2014
app-admin/fleet alunduil 19 Jul 2014
perl-core/Pod-Parser dilfridge 20 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-Pod-Parser dilfridge 21 Jul 2014
sci-libs/libcerf ottxor 21 Jul 2014
games-fps/enemy-territory-omnibot ottxor 22 Jul 2014
dev-libs/libflatarray slis 22 Jul 2014
perl-core/Digest dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-Digest dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
net-libs/stem mrueg 22 Jul 2014
perl-core/I18N-LangTags dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-I18N-LangTags dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
perl-core/Locale-Maketext dilfridge 22 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-Locale-Maketext dilfridge 23 Jul 2014
perl-core/Net-Ping dilfridge 23 Jul 2014
virtual/perl-Net-Ping dilfridge 23 Jul 2014
dev-libs/libbson ultrabug 23 Jul 2014
sci-libs/silo slis 24 Jul 2014
dev-python/pgpdump jlec 24 Jul 2014
net-libs/libasr zx2c4 25 Jul 2014
dev-libs/npth zx2c4 25 Jul 2014
net-wireless/bladerf-firmware zerochaos 25 Jul 2014
net-wireless/bladerf-fpga zerochaos 25 Jul 2014
net-wireless/bladerf zerochaos 25 Jul 2014
sci-libs/cgnslib slis 25 Jul 2014
sci-visualization/visit slis 25 Jul 2014
dev-perl/Switch dilfridge 25 Jul 2014
dev-util/objconv slyfox 28 Jul 2014
app-crypt/monkeysign k_f 29 Jul 2014
virtual/bitcoin-leveldb blueness 29 Jul 2014
dev-db/percona-server robbat2 29 Jul 2014
sys-cluster/galera robbat2 30 Jul 2014
dev-db/mariadb-galera robbat2 30 Jul 2014
net-im/corebird dlan 30 Jul 2014
dev-libs/libpfm slis 31 Jul 2014
dev-perl/ExtUtils-Config civil 31 Jul 2014
dev-libs/papi slis 31 Jul 2014
dev-perl/ExtUtils-Helpers civil 31 Jul 2014
sys-cluster/hpx slis 31 Jul 2014
dev-perl/ExtUtils-InstallPaths civil 31 Jul 2014
dev-perl/Module-Build-Tiny civil 31 Jul 2014
www-plugins/pipelight ryao 31 Jul 2014

Bugzilla

The Gentoo community uses Bugzilla to record and track bugs, notifications, suggestions and other interactions with the development team.

Activity

The following tables and charts summarize the activity on Bugzilla between 01 July 2014 and 31 July 2014. Not fixed means bugs that were resolved as NEEDINFO, WONTFIX, CANTFIX, INVALID or UPSTREAM.
gmn-activity-2014-07

Bug Activity Number
New 1405
Closed 958
Not fixed 164
Duplicates 180
Total 5912
Blocker 5
Critical 19
Major 69

Closed bug ranking

The following table outlines the teams and developers with the most bugs resolved during this period

Rank Team/Developer Bug Count
1 Gentoo KDE team 41
2 Gentoo Security 38
3 Java team 29
4 Gentoo's Team for Core System packages 28
5 Gentoo Linux Gnome Desktop Team 24
6 Gentoo Games 24
7 Netmon Herd 23
8 Qt Bug Alias 22
9 Perl Devs @ Gentoo 22
10 Others 706

gmn-closed-2014-07

Assigned bug ranking

The developers and teams who have been assigned the most bugs during this period are as follows.

Rank Team/Developer Bug Count
1 Gentoo Linux bug wranglers 85
2 Gentoo Linux Gnome Desktop Team 64
3 Gentoo Security 56
4 Gentoo's Team for Core System packages 53
5 Julian Ospald (hasufell) 48
6 Netmon Herd 47
7 Gentoo KDE team 47
8 Python Gentoo Team 31
9 media-video herd 30
10 Others 943

gmn-opened-2014-07

Tip of the month

(by Sven Vermeulen)
Launching commands in background once (instead of scheduled through cron)

  • Have sys-process/at installed.
  • Have /etc/init.d/atd started.

Use things like:
~$ echo "egencache --update --repo=gentoo --jobs=4" | at now + 10 minutes

Heard in the community

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August 09, 2014
Rafael Goncalves Martins a.k.a. rafaelmartins (homepage, bugs)
Introducing pyoembed (August 09, 2014, 21:46 UTC)

Warning: This is a (very) delayed announcement! ;-)

oEmbed is an open standard for embedded content. It allows users to embed some resource, like a picture or a video, in a web page using only the resource URL, without knowing the details of how to embed the resource in a web page.

oEmbed isn't new stuff. It was created around 2008, and despite not being widely supported by content providers, it is supported by some big players, like YouTube, Vimeo, Flickr and Instagram, making its usage highly viable.

To support the oEmbed standard, the content provider just needs to provide a simple API endpoint, that receives an URL and a few other parameters, like the maximum allowed height/width, and returns a JSON or XML object, with ready-to-use embeddable code.

The content provider API endpoint can be previously known by the oEmbed client, or auto-discovered using some meta tags added to the resource's HTML page. This is the point where the standard isn't precise enough: not all of the providers support auto-discovering of the API endpoint, neither all of the providers are properly listed on the oEmbed specification. Proper oEmbed clients should try both approaches, looking for known providers first, falling back to auto-discovered endpoints, if possible.

Each of the Python libraries for oEmbed decided to follow one of the mentioned approaches, without caring about the other one, failing to support relevant providers. And this is the reason why I decided to start writing pyoembed!

pyoembed is a simple and easy to use implementation of the oEmbed standard for Python, that supports both auto-discovered and explicitly defined providers, supporting most (if not all) the relevant providers.

pyoembed's architecture makes it easy to add new providers and supports most of the existing providers out of the box.

To install it, just type:

$ pip install pyoembed

Gentoo users can install it from gentoo-x86:

# emerge -av pyoembed

pyoembed is developed and managed using Github, the repository is publicly available:

https://github.com/rafaelmartins/pyoembed

A Jenkins instance runs the unit tests and the integration tests automatically, you can check the results here:

https://ci.rgm.io/view/pyoembed/

The integration tests are supposed to fail from time to time, because they rely on external urls, that may be unavailable while the tests are running.

pyoembed is released under a 3 clause BSD license.

Enjoy!

Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)
Some changes under the hood (August 09, 2014, 19:45 UTC)

In between conferences, technical writing jobs and traveling, we did a few changes under the hood for SELinux in Gentoo.

First of all, new policies are bumped and also stabilized (2.20130411-r3 is now stable, 2.20130411-r5 is ~arch). These have a few updates (mergers from upstream), and r5 also has preliminary support for tmpfiles (at least the OpenRC implementation of it), which is made part of the selinux-base-policy package.

The ebuilds to support new policy releases now are relatively simple copies of the live ebuilds (which always contain the latest policies) so that bumping (either by me or other developers) is easy enough. There’s also a release script in our policy repository which tags the right git commit (the point at which the release is made), creates the necessary patches, uploads them, etc.

One of the changes made is to “drop” the BASEPOL variable. In the past, BASEPOL was a variable inside the ebuilds that pointed to the right patchset (and base policy) as we initially supported policy modules of different base releases. However, that was a mistake and we quickly moved to bumping all policies with every releaes, but kept the BASEPOL variable in it. Now, BASEPOL is “just” the ${PVR} value of the ebuild so no longer needs to be provided. In the future, I’ll probably remove BASEPOL from the internal eclass and the selinux-base* packages as well.

A more important change to the eclass is support for the SELINUX_GIT_REPO and SELINUX_GIT_BRANCH variables (for live ebuilds, i.e. those with the 9999 version). If set, then they pull from the mentioned repository (and branch) instead of the default hardened-refpolicy.git repository. This allows for developers to do some testing on a different branch easily, or for other users to use their own policy repository while still enjoying the SELinux integration support in Gentoo through the sec-policy/* packages.

Finally, I wrote up a first attempt at our coding style, heavily based on the coding style from the reference policy of course (as our policy is still following this upstream project). This should allow the team to work better together and to decide on namings autonomously (instead of hours of discussing and settling for something as silly as an interface or boolean name ;-)

August 07, 2014
Paweł Hajdan, Jr. a.k.a. phajdan.jr (homepage, bugs)
Can your distro compile Chromium? (August 07, 2014, 07:20 UTC)

Chromium is moving towards using C++11. Even more, it's going to require either gcc-4.8 or clang.

Distros like Ubuntu, Mageia, Fedora, openSUSE, Arch, CentOS, and Slackware are already using gcc-4.8 or later is their latest stable release.

On the other hand, Debian Wheezy (7.0) has gcc-4.7.2. Gentoo is using gcc-4.7.3 in stable.

I started a thread on gentoo-dev, gcc-4.8 may be needed in stable for www-client/chromium-38.x. There is a tracker for gcc-4.8 stabilization, bug #516152. There is also gcc-4.8 porting tracker, bug #461954.

Please consider testing gcc-4.8 on your stable Gentoo system, and file bugs for any package that fails to compile or needs to have a newer version stabilized to work with new gcc. I have recompiled all packages, the kernel, and GRUB without problems.

The title of this post is deliberately a bit similar to my earlier post Is your distro fast enough for Chromium? This browser project is pushing a lot towards shorter release cycles and latest software. I consider that a good thing. Now we just need to keep up with the updates, and any help is welcome.

August 03, 2014
Anthony Basile a.k.a. blueness (homepage, bugs)

When portage installs a package onto your system, it caches information about that package in a directory at /var/db/pkg/<cat>/<pkg>/, where <cat> is the category (ie ${CATEGORY}) and <pkg> is the package name, version number and revision number (ie. ${P}). This information can then be used at a later time to tell portage information about what’s installed on a system: what packages were installed, what USE flags are set on each package, what CFLAGS were used, etc. Even the ebuild itself is cached so that if it is removed from the tree, and consequently from your system upon `emerge –sync`, you have a local copy in VDB to uninstall or otherwise continue working with the package. If you take look under /var/db/pkg, you’ll find some interesting and some not so interesting files for each <cat>/<pkg>. Among the less interesting are files like DEPEND, RDPENED, FEATURES, IUSE, USE, which just contain the same values as the ebuild variables by the same name. This is redundant because that information is in the ebuild itself which is also cached but it is more readily available since one doesn’t have to re-parse the ebuild to obtain them. More interesting is information gathered about the package as it is installed, like CONTENTS, which contains a list of all the regular files, directories, and sym link which belong to the package, along with their MD5SUM. This list is used to remove files from the system when uninstalling the package. Environment information is also cached, like CBUILD, CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and LDFLAGS which affects the build of compiled packages, and environment.bz2 which contains the entire shell environment that portage ran in, including all shell variables and functions from inherited eclasses. But perhaps the most interesting information, and the most expensive to recalculate is, cached in NEEDED and NEEDED.ELF.2. The later supersedes the former which is only kept for backward compatibility, so let’s just concentrate on NEEDED.ELF.2. Its a list of every ELF object that is installed for a package, along with its ARCH/ABI information, its SONAME if it is a shared object (readelf -d <obj> | grep SONAME, or scanelf -S), any RPATH used to search for its needed shared objects (readelf -d <obj> | grep RPATH, or scanelf -r), and any NEEDED shared objects (the SONAMES of libraries) that it links against (readelf -d <obj> | grep NEEDED or scanelf -n). [1] Unless you’re working with some exotic systems, like an embedded image where everything is statically linked, your user land utilities and applications depend on dynamic linking, meaning that when a process is loaded from the executable on your hard drive, the linker has to make sure that its needed libraries are also loaded and then do some relocation magic to make sure that unresolved symbols in your executable get mapped to appropriate memory locations in the libraries.

The subtleties of linking are beyond the scope of this blog posting [2], but I think its clear from the previous paragraph that one can construct a “directed linkage graph” [3] of dependencies between all the ELF objects on a system. An executable can link to a library which in turn links to another, and so on, usually back to your libc [4]. `readelf -d <obj> | grep NEEDED` only give you the immediate dependencies, but if you follow these through recursively, you’ll get all the needed libraries that an executable needs to run. `ldd <obj>` is a shell script which provides this information, as does ldd.py from the pax-utils package, which also does some pretty indentation to show the depth of the dependency. If this is sounding vaguely familiar, its because portage’s dependency rules “mimic” the underlying linking which is needed at both compile time and at run time. Let’s take an example, curl compiled with polarssl as its SSL backend:

# ldd /usr/bin/curl | grep ssl
        libpolarssl.so.6 => /usr/lib64/libpolarssl.so.6 (0x000003a3d06cd000)
# ldd /usr/lib64/libpolarssl.so.6
        linux-vdso.so.1 (0x0000029c1ae12000)
        libz.so.1 => /lib64/libz.so.1 (0x0000029c1a929000)
        libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x0000029c1a56a000)
        /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x0000029c1ae13000)

Now let’s see this dependency reflected in the ebuild:

# cat net-misc/curl/curl-7.36.0.ebuild
RDEPEND="
        ...
        ssl? (
                ...
                curl_ssl_polarssl? ( net-libs/polarssl:= app-misc/ca-certificates )
                ...
        )
        ...

Nothing surprising. However, there is one subtlety. What happens if you update polarssl to a version which is not exactly backwards compatible. Then curl which properly linked against the old version of polarssl doesn’t quite work with the new version. This can happen when the library changes its public interface by either adding new functions, removing older ones and/or changing the behavior of existing functions. Usually upstream indicates this change in the library itself by bumping the SONAME:

# readelf -d /usr/lib64/libpolarssl.so.1.3.7 | grep SONAME
0x000000000000000e (SONAME) Library soname: [libpolarssl.so.6]

But how does curl know about the change when emerging an updated version of polarssl? That’s where subslotting comes in. To communicate the reverse dependency, the DEPEND string in curl’s ebuild has := as the slot indicator for polarssl. This means that upgrading polarssl to a new subslot will trigger a recompile of curl:

# emerge =net-libs/polarssl-1.3.8 -vp

These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild r U ] net-libs/polarssl-1.3.8:0/7 [1.3.7:0/6] USE="doc sse2 static-libs threads%* zlib -havege -programs {-test}" ABI_X86="(64) (-32) (-x32)" 1,686 kB
[ebuild rR ] net-misc/curl-7.36.0 USE="ipv6 ldap rtmp ssl static-libs threads -adns -idn -kerberos -metalink -ssh {-test}" CURL_SSL="polarssl -axtls -gnutls -nss -openssl" 0 kB

Here the onus is on the downstream maintainer to know when the API breaks backwards compatibility and subslot accordingly. Going through with this build and then checking the new SONAME we find:

# readelf -d /usr/lib/libpolarssl.so.1.3.8 | grep SONAME
0x000000000000000e (SONAME) Library soname: [libpolarssl.so.7]

Aha! Notice the SONAME jumped from .6 for polarssl-1.3.7 to .7 for 1.3.8. Also notice the SONAME version number also follows the subslotting value. I’m sure this was a conscious effort by hasufell and tommyd, the ebuild maintainers, to make life easy.

So I hope my example has shown the importance of tracing forward and reverse linkage between the ELF objects in on a system [5]. Subslotting is relatively new but the need to trace linking has always been there. There was, and still is, revdep-rebuild (from gentoolkit) which uses output from ldd to construct a “directed linkage graph” [6] but is is relatively slow. Unfortunately, it recalculates all the NEEDED.ELF.2 information on the system in order to reconstruct and invert the directed linkage graph. Subslotting has partially obsoleted revdep-rebuild because portage can now track the reverse dependencies, but it has not completely obsoleted it. revdep-rebuild falls back on the SONAMEs in the shared objects themselves — an error here is an upstream error in which the maintainers of the library overlooked updating the value of CURRENT in the build system, usually in a line of some Makefile.am that looks like

LDFLAGS += -version-info $(CURRENT):$(REVISION):$(AGE)

But an error in subslotting is an downstream error where the maintainers didn’t properly subslot their package and any dependencies to reflect upstream’s changing API. So in some ways, these tools complement each other.

Now we come to the real point of the blog: there is no reason for revdep-rebuild to run ldd on every ELF object on the system when it can obtain that information from VDB. This doesn’t save time on inverting the directed graph, but it does save time on running ldd (effectively /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 –list) on every ELF object in the system. So guess what the python version does, revdep-rebuild.py? You guessed it, it uses VDB information which is exported by portage via something like

import portage
vardb = portage.db[portage.root]["vartree"].dbapi

So what’s the difference in time? On my system right now, we’re looking at a difference between approximately 5 minutes for revdep-rebuild versus about 20 seconds for revdep-rebuild.py. [7] Since this information is gathered at build time, there is no reason for any Package Management System (PMS) to not export it via some standarized API. portage does so in an awkward fashion but it does export it. paludis does not export NEEDED.ELF.2 although it does export other VDB stuff. I can’t speak to future PMS’s but I don’t see why they should not be held to a standard.

Above I argued that exporting VDB is useful for utilities that maintain consistency between executibles and the shared objects that they consume. I suspect one could counter-argue that it doesn’t need to be exported because “revdep-rebuild” can be made part of portage or whatever your PMS, but I hope my next point will show that exporting NEEDED.ELF.2 information has other uses besides “consistant linking”. So a stronger point is that, not only should PMS export this information, but that it should provide some well documented API for use by other tools. It would be nice for every PMS to have the same API, preferably via python bindings, but as long as it is well documented, it will be useful. (Eg. webapp-config supports both portage and paludis. WebappConfig/wrapper.py has a simple little switch between “import portage; ... portage.settings['CONFIG_PROTECT'] ... ” and “cave print-id-environment-variable -b --format '%%v\n' --variable-name CONFIG_PROTECT %s/%s ...“.)

So besides consistent linking, what else could make use of NEEDED.ELF.2? In the world of Hardened Gentoo, to increase security, a PaX-patched kernel holds processes to much higher standards with respect to their use of memory. [8] Unfortunately, this breaks some packages which want to implement insecure methods, like RWX mmap-ings. Code is compiled “on-the-fly” by JIT compilers which typically create such mappings as an area to which they first write and then execute. However, this is dangerous because it can open up pathways by which arbitrary code can be injected into a running process. So, PaX does not allow RWX mmap-ings — it doesn’t allow it unless that kernel is told otherwise. This is where the PaX flags come in. In the JIT example, marking the executables with `paxctl-ng -m` will turn off PaX’s MPROTECT and allow the RWX mmap-ing. The issue of consistent PaX markings between executable and their libraries arises when it is the library that needs the markings. But when loaded, it is the markings of the executable, not the library, which set the PaX restrictions on the running process. [9]  So if its the library needs the markings, you have to migrate the markings from the library to the executable. Aha! Here we go again: we need to answer the question “what are all the consumers of a particular library so we can migrate its flags to them?” We can, as revdep-rebuild does, re-read all the ELF objects on the system, reconstruct the directed linkage graph, then invert it; or we can just start from the already gathered VDB information and save some time. Like revdep-rebuild and revdep-rebuild.py, I wrote two utilities. The original, revdep-pax, did forward and reverse migration of PaX flags by gathering information with ldd. It was horribly slow, 5 to 10 minutes depending on the number of objects in $PATH and shared object reported by `ldconfig -p`. I then rewrote it to use VDB information and it accomplished the same task in a fraction of the time [10]. Since constructing and inverting the directed linkage graph is such a useful operation, I figured I’d abstract the bare essential code into a python class which you can get at [11]. The data structure containing the entire graph is a compound python dictionary of the form

{
        abi1 : { path_to_elf1 : [ soname1, soname2, ... ], ... },
        abi2 : { path_to_elf2 : [ soname3, soname4, ... ], ... },
        ...
}

whereas the inverted graph has form

{
        abi1 : { soname1 : [ path_to_elf1, path_to_elf2, ... ], ... },
        abi2 : { soname2 : [ path_to_elf3, path_to_elf4, ... ], ... },
        ...
}

Simple!

Okay, up to now I concentrated on exporting NEEDED.ELF.2 information. So what about rest of the VDB information? Is it useful? A lot of questions regarding Gentoo packages can be answered by “grepping the tree.” If you use portage as your PMS, then the same sort of grep-sed-awk foo magic can be performed on /var/db/pkg to answer similar questions. However, this assumes that the PMS’s cached information is in plain ASCII format. If a PMS decides to use something like Berkeley DB or sqlite, then we’re going to need a tool to read the db format which the PMS itself should provide. Because I do a lot of release engineering of uclibc and musl stages, one need that often comes up is the need to compare of what’s installed in the stage3 tarballs for the various arches and alternative libc’s. So, I run some variation of the following script

#!/usr/bin/env python

import portage, re

portdb = portage.db[portage.root]["vartree"].dbapi

arm_stable = open('arm-stable.txt', 'w')
arm_testing = open('arm-testing.txt', 'w')

for pkg in portdb.cpv_all():
keywords = portdb.aux_get(pkg, ["KEYWORDS"])[0]

arches = re.split('\s+', keywords)
        for a in arches:
                if re.match('^arm$', a):
                        arm_stable.write("%s\n" % pkg)
                if re.match('^~arm$', a):
                        arm_testing.write("%s\n" % pkg)

arm_stable.close()
arm_testing.close()

in a stage3-amd64-uclibc-hardened chroot to see what stable packages in the amd64 tarball are ~arm. [12]  I run similar scripts in other chroots to do pairwise comparisons. This gives me some clue as to what may be falling behind in which arches — to keep some consistency between my various stage3 tarballs. Of course there are other utilities to do the same, like eix, gentoolkit etc, but then one still has to resort to parsing the output of those utilities to get the answers you want. An API for VDB information allows you to write your own custom utility to answer the precise questions you need answers. I’m sure you can multiply these examples.

Let me close with a confession. The above is propaganda for the upcoming GLEP 64 which I just wrote [13]. The purpose of the GLEP is to delineate what information should be exported by all PMS’s with particular emphasis on NEEDED.ELF.2 for the reasons stated above.  Currently portage does provide NEEDED.ELF.2 but paludis does not.  I’m not sure what future PMS’s might or might not provide, so let’s set a standard now for an important feature.

 

Notes:

[1] You can see where NEEDED.ELF.2 is generated for details. Take a look at line ~520 of /usr/lib/portage/bin/misc-functions.sh, or search for the comment “Create NEEDED.ELF.2 regardless of RESTRICT=binchecks”.

[2] A simple hands on tutorial can be found at http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LibraryArchives-StaticAndDynamic.html. It also includes dynamic linking via dlopen() which complicates the nice neat graph that can be constructed from NEEDED.ELF.2.

[3] I’m using the term “directed graph” as defined in graph theory. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directed_graph. The nodes of the graph are each ELF object and the directed edges are from the consumer of the shared object to the shared object.

[4] Well, not quite. If you run readelf -d on readelf -d /lib/libc.so.6 you’ll see that it links back to /lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 which doesn’t NEED anything else. The former is stricly your standard C library (man 7 libc) while the later is the dynamic linker/loader (man 8 ld.so).

[5] I should mention parenthatically that there are other executable/library file formats such as Mach-O used on MacOS X. The above arguments translate over to any executable formats which permit shared libraries and dynamic linking. My prejudice for ELF is because it is the primary executable format used on Linux and BSD systems.

[6] I’m coining this term here. If you read the revdep-rebuild code, you won’t see reference to any graph there. Bash doesn’t readily lend itself to the neat data structures that python does.

[7] Just a word of caution, revdep-rebuild.py is still in development and does warn when you run it “This is a development version, so it may not work correctly. The original revdep-rebuild script is installed as revdep-rebuild.sh”.

[8] See https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Hardened/PaX_Quickstart for an explanation of what PaX does as well as how it works.

[9] grep the contents of fs/binfmt_elf.c for PT_PAX_FLAGS and CONFIG_PAX_XATTR_PAX_FLAGS to see how these markings are used when the process is loaded from the ELF object. You can see the PaX protection on a running process by using `cat /proc/<pid>/maps | grep ^PaX` or `pspax` form the pax-utils package.

[10] The latest version off the git repo is at http://git.overlays.gentoo.org/gitweb/?p=proj/elfix.git;a=blob;f=scripts/revdep-pax.

[11] http://git.overlays.gentoo.org/gitweb/?p=proj/elfix.git;a=blob;f=pocs/link-graph/link_graph.py.

[12] These stages are distributed at http://distfiles.gentoo.org/releases/amd64/autobuilds/current-stage3-amd64-uclibc-hardened/ and http://distfiles.gentoo.org/experimental/arm/uclibc/.

[13] https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=518630

Andreas K. Hüttel a.k.a. dilfridge (homepage, bugs)

In a previous post, we've already looked at the structure of Perl ebuilds in Gentoo Linux. Now, let's see what happens in the case of a major Perl update.

Does this look familiar?

UPDATE THE PERL MODULES:
After updating dev-lang/perl you must reinstall
the installed perl modules.
Use: perl-cleaner --all
Then maybe you have updated your major Perl version recently, since this important message is printed by emerge afterwards. So, what is it about? In short, a certain disconnect between the "Perl way" of doing things and the rest of the world. Both have their merits, they just don't play very well with each other... and the result is that major Perl updates in Gentoo have traditionally also been a major pain. (This will become much better in the future, see below.)

Let's see where a perl package stores its files.
caipi ~ # equery files dev-perl/Email-Address
 * Searching for Email-Address in dev-perl ...
 * Contents of dev-perl/Email-Address-1.898.0:
/usr
/usr/lib
/usr/lib/perl5
/usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl
/usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/5.16.3
/usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/5.16.3/Email
/usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/5.16.3/Email/Address.pm
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/Email-Address-1.898.0
/usr/share/doc/Email-Address-1.898.0/Changes.bz2
/usr/share/doc/Email-Address-1.898.0/README.bz2
caipi ~ #
Interesting- the installation path contains the Perl version! The reasons for upstream to do this are pretty much obvious, the application binary interface for compiled modules can change and it's necessary to keep the installed modules for different versions apart. Also, in theory you can keep different Perl versions installed in parallel. Nice idea, however if you have only one "system Perl" installation, and you exchange that for a newer version (say, 5.18.1 instead of 5.16.3), the result is that the new version won't find the installed packages anymore.

The results are rather annoying. Imagine you haven't updated your system for a while, one of the many packages to be updated is dev-lang/perl, and later maybe (just picking an example at random) gnome-base/gsettings-desktop-schemas. Perl is updated fine, but when portage arrives at building the gnome package, the build fails with something like
checking for perl >= 5.8.1... 5.18.2
checking for XML::Parser... configure: error: XML::Parser perl module is required for intltool
Right. Perl is updated, dev-perl/XML-Parser is still installed in the old path, and Perl doesn't find it. Bah.

Enter perl-cleaner, the traditional "solution". This small program checks for files in "outdated" Perl installation paths, finds out which packages they belong to, and makes portage rebuild the corresponding packages. During the rebuild, the installation is run by the updated Perl, which makes the files go into the new, now correct path.

This sounds like a good solution, but there are a lot of details and potential problems hidden. For once, most likely you'll run perl-cleaner after a failed emerge command, and some unrelated packages still need updates. Portage will try to figure out how to do this, but blockers and general weirdness may happen. Then, sometimes a package isn't needed with the new Perl version anymore, but perl-cleaner can't know that. Again the result may be a blocker. We've added the following instructions to the perl-cleaner output, which may help cleaning up the most frequent difficulties:
 * perl-cleaner is stopping here:
 * Fix the problem and start perl-cleaner again.
 *
 * If you encounter blockers involving virtuals and perl-core, here are
 * some things to try:
 *   Remove all perl-core packages from your world file
 *     emerge --deselect --ask $(qlist -IC 'perl-core/*')
 *   Update all the installed Perl virtuals
 *     emerge -uD1a $(qlist -IC 'virtual/perl-*')
 *   Afterwards re-run perl-cleaner
In the end, you may have to try several repeated emerge and perl-cleaner commands until you have an updated and consistent system again. So far, it always worked somehow with fiddling, but the situation was definitely not nice.

So what's the future? Well...

EAPI=5 brings the beautiful new feature of subslots and slot operator dependencies. In short, a package A may declare a subslot, and a package B that depends on A may declare "rebuild me if A changes subslot". This mechanism is now used to automate the Perl rebuilds directly from within emerge: dev-lang/perl declares a subslot corresponding to its major version, say "5.18", and every package that installs Perl modules needs to depend on it with the subslot-rebuild requested, e.g.
RDEPEND="dev-lang/perl:="
The good news about this is that portage now knows the dependency tree and can figure out the correct reinstallation order.

The bad news is, it can only work perfectly after all Perl packages have been converted to EAPI=5 and stabilized. perl-core is done, but with about 2100 ebuilds that use perl-module.eclass in the portage tree still quite some work remains. I've plotted the current EAPI distribution of ebuilds using perl-module.eclass in a pie chart for illustration... Maybe we're done when Perl 5.20 goes stable. Who knows. :)

August 01, 2014
Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)
Gentoo Hardened July meeting (August 01, 2014, 19:48 UTC)

I failed to show up myself (I fell asleep – kids are fun, but deplete your energy source quickly), but that shouldn’t prevent me from making a nice write-up of the meeting.

Toolchain

GCC 4.9 gives some issues with kernel compilations and other components. Lately, breakage has been reported with GCC 4.9.1 compiling MySQL or with debugging symbols. So for hardened, we’ll wait this one out until the bugs are fixed.

For GCC 4.10, the –enable-default-pie patch has been sent upstream. If that is accepted, the SSP one will be sent as well.

In uclibc land, stages are being developed for PPC. This is the final architecture that is often used in embedded worlds that needed support for it in Gentoo, and that’s now being finalized. Go blueness!

SELinux

A libpcre upgrade broke relabeling operations on SELinux enabled systems. A fix for this has been made part of libselinux, but a little too late, so some users will be affected by the problem. It’s easily worked around (removing the *.bin files in the contexts/files/ directory of the SELinux configuration) and hopefully will never occur again.

The 2.3 userland has finally been stabilized (we had a few dependencies that we were waiting for – and we were a dependency ourselves for other packages as well).

Finally, some thought discussion is being done (not that there’s much feedback on it, but every documented step is a good step imo) on the SELinux policy within Gentoo (and the principles that we’ll follow that are behind it).

Kernel and grsecurity / PaX

Due to some security issues, the Linux kernel sources have been stabilized more rapidly than usual, which left little time for broad validation and regression testing. Updates and fixes have been applied since and new stabilizations occurred. Hopefully we’re now at the right, stable set again.

The C-based install-xattr application (which is performance-wise a big improvement over the Python-based one) is working well in “lab environments” (some developers are using it exclusively). It is included in the Portage repository (if I understand the chat excerpts correctly) but as such not available for broader usage yet.

An update against elfix is made as well as there was a dependency mismatch when building with USE=-ptpax. This will be corrected in elfix-0.9.

Finally, blueness is also working on a GLEP (Gentoo Linux Enhancement Proposal) to export VDB information (especially NEEDED.ELF.2) as this is important for ELF/library graph information (as used by revdep-pax, migrate-pax, etc.). Although Portage already does this, this is not part of the PMS and as such other package managers might not do this (such as Paludis).

Profiles

Updates on the profiles has been made to properly include multilib related variables and other metadata. For some profiles, this went as easy as expected (nice stacking), but other profiles have inheritance troubles making it much harder to include the necessary information. Although some talks have arised on the gentoo-dev mailinglist about refactoring how Gentoo handles profiles, there hasn’t been done much more than just talking :-( But I’m sure we haven’t heard the last of this yet.

Documentation

Blueness has added information on EMULTRAMP in the kernel configuration, especially noting to the user that it is needed for Python support in Gentoo Hardened. It is also in the PaX Quickstart document, although this document is becoming a very large one and users might overlook it.

July 27, 2014
Andreas K. Hüttel a.k.a. dilfridge (homepage, bugs)


We've got the stabilization of Perl 5.18 upcoming, so what better chance is there to explain a bit how the Perl-related ebuilds in Gentoo work...

First of all, there is dev-lang/perl. This contains the Perl core distribution, installing the binaries and all the Perl modules that are bundled with Perl itself.

Then, there is the perl-core category. It contains independent ebuilds for Perl modules that are also present in the core Perl distribution. Most Perl modules that are bundled with Perl are also in addition released as independent tarballs. If any of these packages is installed from perl-core, its files are placed such that the perl-core download overrides the bundled copy. This means you can also update part of the bundled Perl modules, e.g. in case of a bug, without updating Perl itself.

Next, there are a lot of virtuals "virtual/perl-..." in the virtual category of the portage tree. What are these good for? Well, imagine you want to depend on a specific version of a module that is usually bundled with Perl. For example, you need Module::CoreList at at least version 3.  This can either be provided by a new enough Perl (for example, now hardmasked Perl 5.20 contains Module::CoreList 3.10), or by a separate package from perl-core (where we have Module::CoreList 5.021001 as perl-core/Module-CoreList-5.21.1).
To make sure that everything works, you should never directly depend on a perl-core package, but always on the corresponding virtual (here virtual/perl-Module-CoreList; any perl-core package must have a corresponding virtual). Then both ways to fulfil the dependency are automatically taken into account. (Future repoman versions will warn if you directly depend on perl-core. Also you should never have anything perl-core in your world file!)

Last, we have lots of lots of modules in the dev-perl category. Most of them are from CPAN, and the only thing they have in common is that they have no copy inside core Perl.

I hope this clarifies things a bit. More Perl posts coming...

July 22, 2014
Diego E. Pettenò a.k.a. flameeyes (homepage, bugs)
LibreSSL: drop-in and ABI leakage (July 22, 2014, 23:09 UTC)

There has been some confusion on my previous post with Bob Beck of LibreSSL on whether I would advocate for using a LibreSSL shared object as a drop-in replacement for an OpenSSL shared object. Let me state this here, boldly: you should never, ever, for no reason, use shared objects from different major/minor OpenSSL versions or implementations (such as LibreSSL) as a drop-in replacement for one another.

The reason is, obviously, that the ABI of these libraries differs, sometimes subtly enought that they may actually load and run, but then perform abysmally insecure operations, as its data structures will have changed, and now instead of reading your random-generated key, you may be reading the master private key. nd in general, for other libraries you may even be calling the wrong set of functions, especially for those written in C++, where the vtable content may be rearranged across versions.

What I was discussing in the previous post was the fact that lots of proprietary software packages, by bundling a version of Curl that depends on the RAND_egd() function, will require either unbundling it, or keeping along a copy of OpenSSL to use for runtime linking. And I think that is a problem that people need to consider now rather than later for a very simple reason.

Even if LibreSSL (or any other reimplementation, for what matters) takes foot as the default implementation for all Linux (and not-Linux) distributions, you'll never be able to fully forget of OpenSSL: not only if you have proprietary software that you maintain, but also because a huge amount of software (and especially hardware) out there will not be able to update easily. And the fact that LibreSSL is throwing away so much of the OpenSSL clutter also means that it'll be more difficult to backport fixes — while at the same time I think that a good chunk of the black hattery will focus on OpenSSL, especially if it feels "abandoned", while most of the users will still be using it somehow.

But putting aside the problem of the direct drop-in incompatibilities, there is one more problem that people need to understand, especially Gentoo users, and most other systems that do not completely rebuild their package set when replacing a library like this. The problem is what I would call "ABI leakage".

Let's say you have a general libfoo that uses libssl; it uses a subset of the API that works with both OpenSSL. Now you have a bar program that uses libfoo. If the library is written properly, then it'll treat all the data structures coming from libssl as opaque, providing no way for bar to call into libssl without depending on the SSL API du jour (and thus putting a direct dependency on libssl for the executable). But it's very well possible that libfoo is not well-written and actually treats the libssl API as transparent. For instance a common mistake is to use one of the SSL data structures inline (rather than as a pointer) in one of its own public structures.

This situation would be barely fine, as long as the data types for libfoo are also completely opaque, as then it's only the code for libfoo that relies on the structures, and since you're rebuilding it anyway (as libssl is not ABI-compatible), you solve your problem. But if we keep assuming a worst-case scenario, then you have bar actually dealing with the data structures, for instance by allocating a sized buffer itself, rather than calling into a proper allocation function from libfoo. And there you have a problem.

Because now the ABI of libfoo is not directly defined by its own code, but also by whichever ABI libssl has! It's a similar problem as the symbol table used as an ABI proxy: while your software will load and run (for a while), you're really using a different ABI, as libfoo almost certainly does not change its soname when it's rebuilt against a newer version of libssl. And that can easily cause crashes and worse (see the note above about dropping in LibreSSL as a replacement for OpenSSL).

Now honestly none of this is specific to LibreSSL. The same is true if you were to try using OpenSSL 1.0 shared objects for software built against OpenSSL 0.9 — which is why I cringed any time I heard people suggesting to use symlink at the time, and it seems like people are giving the same suicidal suggestion now with OpenSSL, according to Bob.

So once again, don't expect binary-compatibility across different versions of OpenSSL, LibreSSL, or any other implementation of the same API, unless they explicitly aim for that (and LibreSSL definitely doesn't!)

July 20, 2014
Diego E. Pettenò a.k.a. flameeyes (homepage, bugs)
LibreSSL and the bundled libs hurdle (July 20, 2014, 09:55 UTC)

It was over five years ago that I ranted about the bundling of libraries and what that means for vulnerabilities found in those libraries. The world has, since, not really listened. RubyGems still keep insisting that "vendoring" gems is good, Go explicitly didn't implement a concept of shared libraries, and let's not even talk about Docker or OSv and their absolutism in static linking and bundling of the whole operating system, essentially.

It should have been obvious how this can be a problem when Heartbleed came out, bundled copies of OpenSSL would have needed separate updates from the system libraries. I guess lots of enterprise users of such software were saved only by the fact that most of the bundlers ended up using older versions of OpenSSL where heartbeat was not implemented at all.

Now that we're talking about replacing the OpenSSL libraries with those coming from a different project, we're going to be hit by both edges of the proprietary software sword: bundling and ABI compatibility, which will make things really interesting for everybody.

If you've seen my (short, incomplete) list of RAND_egd() users which I posted yesterday. While the tinderbox from which I took this is out of date and needs cleaning, it is a good starting point to figure out the trends, and as somebody already picked up, the bundling is actually strong.

Software that bundled Curl, or even Python, but then relied on the system copy of OpenSSL, will now be looking for RAND_egd() and thus fail. You could be unbundling these libraries, and then use a proper, patched copy of Curl from the system, where the usage of RAND_egd() has been removed, but then again, this is what I've been advocating forever or so. With caveats, in the case of Curl.

But now if the use of RAND_egd() is actually coming from the proprietary bits themselves, you're stuck and you can't use the new library: you either need to keep around an old copy of OpenSSL (which may be buggy and expose even more vulnerability) or you need a shim library that only provides ABI compatibility against the new LibreSSL-provided library — I'm still not sure why this particular trick is not employed more often, when the changes to a library are only at the interface level but still implements the same functionality.

Now the good news is that from the list that I produced, at least the egd functions never seemed to be popular among proprietary developers. This is expected as egd was vastly a way to implement the /dev/random semantics for non-Linux systems, while the proprietary software that we deal with, at least in the Linux world, can just accept the existence of the devices themselves. So the only problems have to do with unbundling (or replacing) Curl and possibly the Python SSL module. Doing so is not obvious though, as I see from the list that there are at least two copies of libcurl.so.3 which is the older ABI for Curl — although admittedly one is from the scratchbox SDKs which could just as easily be replaced with something less hacky.

Anyway, my current task is to clean up the tinderbox so that it's in a working state, after which I plan to do a full build of all the reverse dependencies on OpenSSL, it's very possible that there are more entries that should be in the list, since it was built with USE=gnutls globally to test for GnuTLS 3.0 when it came out.

July 19, 2014
Paweł Hajdan, Jr. a.k.a. phajdan.jr (homepage, bugs)

I was experimenting in my arm chroot, and after a gcc upgrade and emerge --depclean --ask that removed the old gcc I got the following error:

# ls -l
ls: error while loading shared libraries: libgcc_s.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

Fortunately the newer working gcc was present, so the steps to make things work again were:

# LD_LIBRARY_PATH="${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/usr/lib/gcc/armv7a-hardfloat-linux-gnueabi/4.8.2/" gcc-config -l
 * gcc-config: Active gcc profile is invalid!

 [1] armv7a-hardfloat-linux-gnueabi-4.8.2

# LD_LIBRARY_PATH="${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/usr/lib/gcc/armv7a-hardfloat-linux-gnueabi/4.8.2/" gcc-config 1 
 * Switching native-compiler to armv7a-hardfloat-linux-gnueabi-4.8.2 ...

Actually my first thought was using busybox. The unexpected breakage during a routine gcc upgrade made me do some research in case I can't rely on /bin/busybox being present and working.

I highly recommend the following links for further reading:
http://lambdaops.com/rm-rf-remains
http://eusebeia.dyndns.org/bashcp
http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/27is0x/rm_rf_remains/ci199bk

Read more »

Diego E. Pettenò a.k.a. flameeyes (homepage, bugs)

When I read about LibreSSL coming from the OpenBSD developers, my first impression was that it was a stunt. I did not change my impression of it drastically still. While I know at least one quite good OpenBSD developer, my impression of the whole set is still the same: we have different concepts of security, and their idea of "cruft" is completely out there for me. But this is a topic for some other time.

So seeing the amount of scrutiny from other who are, like me, skeptical of the OpenBSD people left on their own is a good news. It keeps them honest, as they say. But it also means that things that wouldn't be otherwise understood by people not used to Linux don't get shoved under the rug.

This is not idle musings: I still remember (but can't find now) an article in which Theo boasted not ever having used Linux. And yet kept insisting that his operating system was clearly superior. I was honestly afraid that the way the fork-not-a-fork project was going to be handled was the same, I'm positively happy to be proven wrong up to now.

I actually have been thrilled to see that finally there is movement to replace the straight access to /dev/random and /dev/urandom: Ted's patch to implement a getrandom() system call that can be made compatible with OpenBSD's own getentropy() in user space. And even more I'm happy to see that at least one of the OpenBSD/LibreSSL developers pitching in to help shape the interface.

Dropping out the egd support made me puzzled for a moment, but then I realized that there is no point in using egd to feed the randomness to the process, you just need to feed entropy to the kernel, and let the process get it normally. I have had, unfortunately, quite a bit of experience with entropy-generating daemons, and I wonder if this might be the right time to suggest getting a new multi-source daemon out.

So a I going to just blindly trust the OpenBSD people because "they have a good track record"? No. And to anybody that suggest that you can take over lines and lines of code from someone else's crypto-related project, remove a bunch of code that you think is useless, and have an immediate result, my request is to please stop working with software altogether.

Security Holes Copyright © Randall Munroe.

I'm not saying that they would do it on purpose, or that they wouldn't be trying to do the darndest to make LibreSSL a good replacement for OpenSSL. What I'm saying is that I don't like the way, and the motives, the project was started from. And I think that a reality check, like the one they already got, was due and a good news.

On my side, once the library gets a bit more mileage I'll be happy to run the tinderbox against it. For now, I'm re-gaining access to Excelsior after a bad kernel update, and I'll just go and search with elfgrep for which binaries do use the egd functionalities and need to be patched, I'll post it on Twitter/G+ once I have it. I know it's not much, but this is what I can do.

July 14, 2014
Richard Freeman a.k.a. rich0 (homepage, bugs)
Quick systemd-nspawn guide (July 14, 2014, 20:31 UTC)

I switched to using systemd-nspawn in place of chroot and wanted to give a quick guide to using it.  The short version is that I’d strongly recommend that anybody running systemd that uses chroot switch over – there really are no downsides as long as your kernel is properly configured.

Chroot should be no stranger to anybody who works on distros, and I suspect that the majority of Gentoo users have need for it from time to time.

The Challenges of chroot

For most interactive uses it isn’t sufficient to just run chroot.  Usually you need to mount /proc, /sys, and bind mount /dev so that you don’t have issues like missing ptys, etc.  If you use tmpfs you might also want to mount the new tmp, var/tmp as tmpfs.  Then you might want to make other bind mounts into the chroot.  None of this is particularly difficult, but you usually end up writing a small script to manage it.

Now, I routinely do full backups, and usually that involves excluding stuff like tmp dirs, and anything resembling a bind mount.  When I set up a new chroot that means updating my backup config, which I usually forget to do since most of the time the chroot mounts aren’t running anyway.  Then when I do leave it mounted overnight I end up with backups consuming lots of extra space (bind mounts of large trees).

Finally, systemd now by default handles bind mounts a little differently when they contain other mount points (such as when using –rbind).  Apparently unmounting something in the bind mount will cause systemd to unmount the corresponding directory on the other side of the bind.  Imagine my surprise when I unmounted my chroot bind to /dev and discovered /dev/pts and /dev/shm no longer mounted on the host.  It looks like there are ways to change that, but this isn’t the point of my post (it just spurred me to find another way).

Systemd-nspawn’s Advantages

Systemd-nspawn is a tool that launches a container, and it can operate just like chroot in its simplest form.  By default it automatically sets up most of the overhead like /dev, /tmp, etc.  With a few options it can also set up other bind mounts as well.  When the container exits all the mounts are cleaned up.

From the outside of the container nothing appears different when the container is running.  In fact, you could spawn 5 different systemd-nspawn container instances from the same chroot and they wouldn’t have any interaction except via the filesystem (and that excludes /dev, /tmp, and so on – only changes in /usr, /etc will propagate across).  Your backup won’t see the bind mounts, or tmpfs, or anything else mounted within the container.

The container also has all those other nifty container benefits like containment – a killall inside the container won’t touch anything outside, and so on.  The security isn’t airtight – the intent is to prevent accidental mistakes.  

Then, if you use a compatible sysvinit (which includes systemd, and I think recent versions of openrc), you can actually boot the container, which drops you to a getty inside.  That means you can use fstab to do additional mounts inside the container, run daemons, and so on.  You get almost all the benefits of virtualization for the cost of a chroot (no need to build a kernel, and so on).  It is a bit odd to be running systemctl poweroff inside what looks just like a chroot, but it works.

Note that unless you do a bit more setup you will share the same network interface with the host, so no running sshd on the container if you have it on the host, etc.  I won’t get into this but it shouldn’t be hard to run a separate network namespace and bind the interfaces so that the new instance can run dhcp.

How to do it

So, getting it actually working will likely be the shortest bit in this post.

You need support for namespaces and multiple devpts instances in your kernel:

CONFIG_UTS_NS=y
CONFIG_IPC_NS=y
CONFIG_USER_NS=y
CONFIG_PID_NS=y
CONFIG_NET_NS=y
CONFIG_DEVPTS_MULTIPLE_INSTANCES=y

 From there launching a namespace just like a chroot is really simple:

systemd-nspawn -D .

That’s it – you can exit from it just like a chroot.  From inside you can run mount and see that it has taken care of /dev and /tmp for you.  The “.” is the path to the chroot, which I assume is the current directory.  With nothing further it runs bash inside.

If you want to add some bind mounts it is easy:

systemd-nspawn -D . –bind /usr/portage

Now your /usr/portage is bound to your host, so no need to sync/etc.  If you want to bind to a different destination add a “:dest” after the source, relative to the root of the chroot (so –bind foo is the same as –bind foo:foo).

If the container has a functional init that can handle being run inside, you can add a -b to boot it:

systemd-nspawn -D . –bind /usr/portage -b

Watch the init do its job.  Shut down the container to exit.

Now, if that container is running systemd you can direct its journal to the host journal with -h:

systemd-nspawn -D . –bind /usr/portage -j -b

Now, nspawn registers the container so that it shows up in machinectl.  That makes it easy to launch a new getty on it, or ssh to it (if it is running ssh – see my note above about network namespaces), or power it off from the host.  

That’s it.  If you’re running systemd I’d suggest ditching chroot almost entirely in favor of nspawn.  


Filed under: foss, gentoo, linux

Patrick Lauer a.k.a. bonsaikitten (homepage, bugs)
Biggest ebuilds in-tree (July 14, 2014, 06:39 UTC)

Random datapoint: There's only about 10 packages with ebuilds over 600 lines.

Sorted by lines, duplicate entries per-package removed, these are the biggest ones:

828 dev-lang/ghc/ghc-7.6.3-r1.ebuild
817 dev-lang/php/php-5.3.28-r3.ebuild
750 net-nds/openldap/openldap-2.4.38-r2.ebuild
664 www-client/chromium/chromium-36.0.1985.67.ebuild
654 www-servers/nginx/nginx-1.4.7.ebuild
658 games-rpg/nwn-data/nwn-data-1.29-r5.ebuild
654 media-video/mplayer/mplayer-1.1.1-r1.ebuild
644 dev-vcs/git/git-9999-r3.ebuild
621 x11-drivers/ati-drivers/ati-drivers-13.4.ebuild
617 sys-freebsd/freebsd-lib/freebsd-lib-9.1-r11.ebuild

July 12, 2014
Hanno Böck a.k.a. hanno (homepage, bugs)
LibreSSL on Gentoo (July 12, 2014, 18:31 UTC)

LibreSSL PuffyYesterday the LibreSSL project released the first portable version that works on Linux. LibreSSL is a fork of OpenSSL and was created by the OpenBSD team in the aftermath of the Heartbleed bug.

Yesterday and today I played around with it on Gentoo Linux. I was able to replace my system's OpenSSL completely with LibreSSL and with few exceptions was able to successfully rebuild all packages using OpenSSL.

After getting this running on my own system I installed it on a test server. The Webpage tlsfun.de runs on that server. The functionality changes are limited, the only thing visible from the outside is the support for the experimental, not yet standardized ChaCha20-Poly1305 cipher suites, which is a nice thing.

A warning ahead: This is experimental, in no way stable or supported and if you try any of this you do it at your own risk. Please report any bugs you have with my overlay to me or leave a comment and don't disturb anyone else (from Gentoo or LibreSSL) with it. If you want to try it, you can get a portage overlay in a subversion repository. You can check it out with this command:
svn co https://svn.hboeck.de/libressl-overlay/
git clone https://github.com/gentoo/libressl.git

This is what I had to do to get things running:

LibreSSL itself

First of all the Gentoo tree contains a lot of packages that directly depend on openssl, so I couldn't just replace that. The correct solution to handle such issues would be to create a virtual package and change all packages depending directly on openssl to depend on the virtual. This is already discussed in the appropriate Gentoo bug, but this would mean patching hundreds of packages so I skipped it and worked around it by leaving a fake openssl package in place that itself depends on libressl.

LibreSSL deprecates some APIs from OpenSSL. The first thing that stopped me was that various programs use the functions RAND_egd() and RAND_egd_bytes(). I didn't know until yesterday what egd is. It stands for Entropy Gathering Daemon and is a tool written in perl meant to replace the functionality of /dev/(u)random on non-Linux-systems. The LibreSSL-developers consider it insecure and after having read what it is I have to agree. However, the removal of those functions causes many packages not to build, upon them wget, python and ruby. My workaround was to add two dummy functions that just return -1, which is the error code if the Entropy Gathering Daemon is not available. So the API still behaves like expected. I also posted the patch upstream, but the LibreSSL devs don't like it. So on the long term it's probably better to fix applications to stop trying to use egd, but for now these dummy functions make it easier for me to build my system.

The second issue popping up was that the libcrypto.so from libressl contains an undefined main() function symbol which causes linking problems with a couple of applications (subversion, xorg-server, hexchat). According to upstream this undefined symbol is intended and most likely these are bugs in the applications having linking problems. However, for now it was easier for me to patch the symbol out instead of fixing all the apps. Like the egd issue on the long term fixing the applications is better.

The third issue was that LibreSSL doesn't ship pkg-config (.pc) files, some apps use them to get the correct compilation flags. I grabbed the ones from openssl and adjusted them accordingly.

OpenSSH

This was the most interesting issue from all of them.

To understand this you have to understand how both LibreSSL and OpenSSH are developed. They are both from OpenBSD and they use some functions that are only available there. To allow them to be built on other systems they release portable versions which ship the missing OpenBSD-only-functions. One of them is arc4random().

Both LibreSSL and OpenSSH ship their compatibility version of arc4random(). The one from OpenSSH calls RAND_bytes(), which is a function from OpenSSL. The RAND_bytes() function from LibreSSL however calls arc4random(). Due to the linking order OpenSSH uses its own arc4random(). So what we have here is a nice recursion. arc4random() and RAND_bytes() try to call each other. The result is a segfault.

I fixed it by using the LibreSSL arc4random.c file for OpenSSH. I had to copy another function called arc4random_stir() from OpenSSH's arc4random.c and the header file thread_private.h. Surprisingly, this seems to work flawlessly.

Net-SSLeay

This package contains the perl bindings for openssl. The problem is a check for the openssl version string that expected the name OpenSSL and a version number with three numbers and a letter (like 1.0.1h). LibreSSL prints the version 2.0. I just hardcoded the OpenSSL version numer, which is not a real fix, but it works for now.

SpamAssassin

SpamAssassin's code for spamc requires SSLv2 functions to be available. SSLv2 is heavily insecure and should not be used at all and therefore the LibreSSL devs have removed all SSLv2 function calls. Luckily, Debian had a patch to remove SSLv2 that I could use.

libesmtp / gwenhywfar

Some DES-related functions (DES is the old Data Encryption Standard) in OpenSSL are available in two forms: With uppercase DES_ and with lowercase des_. I can only guess that the des_ variants are for backwards compatibliity with some very old versions of OpenSSL. According to the docs the DES_ variants should be used. LibreSSL has removed the des_ variants.

For gwenhywfar I wrote a small patch and sent it upstream. For libesmtp all the code was in ntlm. After reading that ntlm is an ancient, proprietary Microsoft authentication protocol I decided that I don't need that anyway so I just added --disable-ntlm to the ebuild.

Dovecot

In Dovecot two issues popped up. LibreSSL removed the SSL Compression functionality (which is good, because since the CRIME attack we know it's not secure). Dovecot's configure script checks for it, but the check doesn't work. It checks for a function that LibreSSL keeps as a stub. For now I just disabled the check in the configure script. The solution is probably to remove all remaining stub functions. The configure script could probably also be changed to work in any case.

The second issue was that the Dovecot code has some #ifdef clauses that check the openssl version number for the ECDH auto functionality that has been added in OpenSSL 1.0.2 beta versions. As the LibreSSL version number 2.0 is higher than 1.0.2 it thinks it is newer and tries to enable it, but the code is not present in LibreSSL. I changed the #ifdefs to check for the actual functionality by checking a constant defined by the ECDH auto code.

Apache httpd

The Apache http compilation complained about a missing ENGINE_CTRL_CHIL_SET_FORKCHECK. I have no idea what it does, but I found a patch to fix the issue, so I didn't investigate it further.

Further reading:
Someone else tried to get things running on Sabotage Linux.

Update: I've abandoned my own libressl overlay, a LibreSSL overlay by various Gentoo developers is now maintained at GitHub.

July 09, 2014
Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)

SELinux users might be facing failures when emerge is merging a package to the file system, with an error that looks like so:

>>> Setting SELinux security labels
/usr/lib64/portage/bin/misc-functions.sh: line 1112: 23719 Segmentation fault      /usr/sbin/setfiles "${file_contexts_path}" -r "${D}" "${D}"
 * ERROR: dev-libs/libpcre-8.35::gentoo failed:
 *   Failed to set SELinux security labels.

This has been reported as bug 516608 and, after some investigation, the cause is found. First the quick workaround:

~# cd /etc/selinux/strict/contexts/files
~# rm *.bin

And do the same for the other SELinux policy stores on the system (targeted, mcs, mls, …).

Now, what is happening… Inside the mentioned directory, binary files exist such as file_contexts.bin. These files contain the compiled regular expressions of the non-binary files (like file_contexts). By using the precompiled versions, regular expression matching by the SELinux utilities is a lot faster. Not that it is massively slow otherwise, but it is a nice speed improvement nonetheless.

However, when pcre updates occur, then the basic structures that pcre uses internally might change. For instance, a number might switch from a signed integer to an unsigned integer. As pcre is meant to be used within the same application run, most applications do not have any issues with such changes. However, the SELinux utilities effectively serialize these structures and later read them back in. If the new pcre uses a changed structure, then the read-in structures are incompatible and even corrupt.

Hence the segmentation faults.

To resolve this, Stephen Smalley created a patch that includes PCRE version checking. This patch is now included in sys-libs/libselinux version 2.3-r1. The package also recompiles the existing *.bin files so that the older binary files are no longer on the system. But there is a significant chance that this update will not trickle down to the users in time, so the workaround might be needed.

I considered updating the pcre ebuilds as well with this workaround, but considering that libselinux is most likely to be stabilized faster than any libpcre bump I let it go.

At least we have a solution for future upgrades; sorry for the noise.

Edit: libselinux-2.2.2-r5 also has the fix included.

Michał Górny a.k.a. mgorny (homepage, bugs)
The Council and the Community (July 09, 2014, 06:27 UTC)

A new Council election is in progress and we have a few candidates. Most of them have written a manifesto. For some of them this is one of the few mails they sent to the public mailing lists recently. For one of them this is the only one. Do we want to elect people who do not participate actively in the Community? Does such election even make sense?

Gentoo is an open, free community. While the Developer Community is not really open (joining consumes a lot of time), the discussion media were always open to non-developer comments and ideas. Most of the people working on Gentoo are volunteers, doing all the work in their free time or between other tasks.

While we have formal rules, leaders and projects, all of them have very limited power. The rules pretty much boil down to being «do not»s. You can try to convince developer to follow your vision but you can’t force him to. If you try too hard, the best you can get is losing a valuable contributor. And I’m not talking about the extremes like rage quits; the person will simply no longer be interested in working on a particular project.

Most of the mailing list (and bug) discussions are about that. Finding possible solutions, discussing their technical merits and finding an agreement. It is not enough to choose a solution which is considered best by a majority or a team. It is about agreeing on a solution that is good and that comes with people willing to work on it. Otherwise, you end up with no solution because what has been chosen is not being implemented.

Consider the late games team policy thread. The games team and their supporter believes their solutions to have technical merit. Without getting into debating this, we can easily see the effects. The team is barely getting any contributions, mostly thanks to a few (three?) persistent out-of-team developers that are willing to overcome all the difficulties. And even those contributors support the idea of abolishing the current policy.

So, what’s the purpose of all the teams, their leads and the Council in all this? As I see it, teams are the people who know the particular area better than others, and have valuable experience. Yet teams need to be open to the Community, to listen to their feedback, to provide valuable points to the discussion and to guide it towards a consensus.

The teams may need to make a final decision if a mailing list discussion doesn’t end in a clear agreement. However, they need to weigh it carefully, to foresee the outcome. It is not enough to discuss the merits in a semi-open meeting, and it is not enough to consider only the technical aspect. The teams need to predict how the decision will affect the Community, how it will affect the users and the contributors.

The Council is not very different from those teams, albeit more formal in its proceedings. Likewise, it needs to listen to the Community, especially if it is called specifically to revise a team’s decision (or lack of action).

Now, how could the Council determine what’s best for Gentoo without actively participating in the proceedings of the Community? Non-active candidates, do you expect to start participating after being elected? Or do you think that grepping through the threads five minutes before the meeting is enough?

Well, I hope that the next Council will be up to the task. That it will listen to the Community and weigh their decisions carefully. That it will breed action and support ideas backed by technical merits and willing people, rather than decisions that discourage further contribution.

July 06, 2014
Sebastian Pipping a.k.a. sping (homepage, bugs)

Hello :)

I don’t get to playing with code much lately. Yesterday and today I put some effort into trying to understand and document the EGF file format used by Xie Xie to store Xiangqi games including per-move comments and a bit of other metadata.

Status quo includes a simple command line tool:

# ./egf/cli.py test.egf 
Event:  Blog post
Site:  At home
Date:  6-7-2014
Round:  1
Red name:  sping
Black name:  Xie Xie Freeware 2.5.0
Description:  Command line tool demo input
Author:  sping

File i:  R _ _ P _ _ p _ _ r
File h:  H _ C _ _ _ _ c _ h
File g:  E _ _ P _ _ p _ _ e
File f:  A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a
File e:  K _ _ P _ _ p _ _ k
File d:  A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a
File c:  E _ _ P _ _ p _ _ e
File b:  H _ C _ _ _ _ c _ h
File a:  R _ _ P _ _ p _ _ r
(Ranks 9 to 0 from left to right)

To start:  red

6 single moves in total
[ 1]  c h3  - e3 
[ 1]                   H h10 - g8 
[ 2]  h h1  - g3 
[ 2]                   R i10 - h10
[ 3]  r i1  - h1 
[ 3]                   C h8  - h4 

Result:  to be determined

Bytes remaining to be read:
0 0

I welcome help to fill in the remaining blanks, e.g. with decoding time markers and king-in-check markers of moves.

If you are on Gentoo and would like to run Xie Xie the easy way, grab games-board/xiexie-freeware-bin from the betagarden overlay.

EGF files for inspection can be downloaded from http://www.cc-xiexie.com/download.php.

Gentoo Monthly Newsletter: June 2014 (July 06, 2014, 15:00 UTC)

Gentoo News

Interview with Patrick McLean (chutzpah)

(by David Abbott)
1. Hi Patrick o/ tell us about yourself?
I am currently a Gentoo Engineer (yes, that is my actual job title) at Gaikai. Before this job I was a Systems Administrator at the McGill Centre for Intelligent Machines, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
When I am not coding or packaging I like to watch television, read sci-fi and fantasy, cycle, occasionally go on hikes. When I can I love downhill skiing, but it’s a little harder in California than it was in Quebec.

2. How did you get involved with Linux and Open Source, and what was the path that lead to you to Gentoo?
I started using Linux at the end of 1996. Originally I switched to Linux because with the slow Internet connections of the times, web pages would take a long time to load. I would often open dozens of windows so I could be reading on site while others were loading. After a certain number of open browsers, Windows 95 would start to bog down then just crash, while when I did the same thing on Linux it would just happily chug along.
Around 2001, when Gnome 2 came out, I wanted to try out, and I don’t like installing software outside of the package manager, so I attempted to get the rpms from the rawhide repository. This experience made me decide to look for a different distro, and I ended up liking Gentoo the most.

3. What aspects of Gentoo do you feel the developers and maintainers have got right?
The ebuild is a great source-based package format, it has it’s drawbacks but it is far superior to the other formats I have looked at. I also like that Gentoo treats configurability as an important feature. The frequent use of /etc/foo.d and the scriptability of many parts of the system is great.
I also like some of the more recent work that has gone in to not breaking systems, preserved-rebuild and (despite some overuse) subslots fix many of the annoyances we had in the old days.
I am also a big fan of what is now OpenRC, ever since I first started using Gentoo, I have thought that this is a huge improvement over the alternatives.

4. What is it about Gentoo you would like to see improved?
I think that portage itself is getting very crufty, and the code base is not very nice to work with. I am sure just about everyone reading this would agree that dependency resolution is way too slow at the moment (especially with subslots). Sometimes it generates error messages that are horribly verbose with no indication of how to fix them. I have seen those errors make people leave Gentoo, this is especially bad when the things it’s generating errors about are relatively harmless.
There are also other problems with how portage stores the information about installed packages on the disk, and binary packages in their current form just suck, and are pretty useless.

5. What resources have you found most helpful when troubleshooting within Gentoo and Linux in general?
For doing research into problems, google of course is very useful. For tracking down problems strace is probably the one tool I find the most useful. Of course also digging into the source is probably the single best way to figure out what is actually going on.

6. What are some of the projects within Gentoo that you enjoy contributing to?
I mostly do ebuild work at the moment, python is one area that I contribute the most to. I would like to get more in to package manager work, and I want to start helping more with OpenRC, but finding time is frequently a problem.

7. What is your programming background?
I taught myself to program on GW-BASIC for DOS, it was in no way a modern or even remotely modern language. I moved on to QBASIC a bit later on. Once I got to post high school I started learning Java, C, C++, but my first programming job was Visual Basic, it was an internship that turned in to a summer job. During this time frame I also taught myself shell scripting.
Later (around 2008) I taught myself python when a friend and I were trying to start a business.

8. For someone new to Python what tips could you give them to get a good foundation?
There are lots of good tutorials out there, I personally used Dive in to Python and found it quite useful. I also found that when I learned more about how Python is implemented, it improved my abilities quite a bit. If you truly understand that in Python everything is a dictionary, and the implications of that then it helps quite a bit in debugging the root cause of problems and write better code.

9. Tell us about pkgcore, its features and future?
Pkgcore is an alternative implementation of the PMS. It’s basically an alternative to portage. It has always had the eventual goal of becoming the default package manager on Gentoo, replacing portage. It’s currently orders of magnitude faster than portage. It’s code base is much cleaner, though a little hard to understand at first thanks to it’s use of libsnakeoil for performance optimization. Currently Tim Harder (radhermit) is working on getting all the recent portage feature implemented, it mostly supports EAPI 5 in the git repo now.
Hopefully it can attract more developers and eventually become a truly viable portage replacement, so we can get rid of the cruft that has built up in the portage source over the years.

10. Which open source programs would you like to see developed?
That’s a hard question to answer. I think the biggest one is I would love to see an open source firmware for BMC controllers. These are the extra small computers included in servers that allow things such as remote console and the ability to remotely manage servers. Currently the ecosystem is full of half-assed implementations done by hardware companies, many of which are rife with security holes. There is no standard for remote console, so they all use buggy and horrible java applets to implement this. I would love to see a standard open source suite that motherboard developer all use, with native remote console clients for major OSes.

11. What would be your dream job?
Well I have long wanted a job as a kernel developer, but have never had the time to really dedicate to get to the point where someone would hire me. My current job is a close second. I work with Gentoo every day at work, often writing new ebuilds an fixing bugs in existing ebuilds as part of my day-to-day duties at work.
My day-to-day duties involve ebuild development and debugging. I also do a lot of automation of things like installing new systems, and was the lead developer on our in-house answer to configuration management. I get to do a lot of cool stuff with Gentoo and I get to get paid for it.

12. Need any help?
Yes, we are currently hiring lots of positions, all working with Gentoo. We are really looking for ebuild developers of all kinds, especially if you are comfortable with Java ebuilds (not mandatory, but it would be nice). We are also looking for anyone who is familiar with Gentoo to help with work in Release Engineering and Site Reliability Engineering. We currently have offices in Southern California, USA and Berlin, Germany.
If you are interested in getting paid to work with Gentoo, please drop me a line.

13. With your skills you would be welcome in any project, why did you chose Gentoo?
It had been my distro of choice for many years, and I just ended maintaining a local overlay with many bug fixes and miscellaneous things, so I decided to become a developer to share my work with everyone else.

14. What can we do to get more people involved as Gentoo developers?
That’s a hard question to answer, at the moment probably the best way would be to get back the “hot” and “cool” factors. These days Gentoo is sort of a “background” distro that has been around for ages, has loads of users but new people don’t get excited about anymore, kind of like Debian.
I think we also need to reduce developer burnout, I get the impression that once some people become developers, they feel that they have to fix every bug in the tree. This leads to them being really productive devs for a few months, then leaving when they get burned out and quit.

15. What users would you like to see recruited to become Gentoo developers?
It would be nice to recruit some of the proxy maintainers to contribute to more packages. I don’t have anyone specific in mind at this moment.

16. As a Gentoo developer what are some of your accomplishments?
When I first started, I was on the amd64 bandwagon very early, so I ended up doing the 64-bit ports for a pretty large number of packges. More recently I maintain ebuilds for some particularly tricky packages such as Ganeti, which is a mixture of Python and Haskell code.

17. Same question but work related.
Well, it’s probably a combination of two things.
Creating Gentoo profiles to auto generate dozens of different server image types, and building solid base Gentoo install for those servers.
Also building a fully automated Gentoo installation system that can partition disks, set up RAID, LVM and other parameters based on a JSON definition. Also a configuration file generation system that makes up the basis of our configuration management system.

18. What are the specs of your personal and work boxes?
My home box is a 6-core Core-i7 970 with 24GB of RAM, a GeForce 770, a 256GB SSD, 2 500GB spinning disks and a 1TB spinning disk. I have a 24” monitor and a 22”.
My workstation at work is a 8-core Opteron with 16GB of RAM. I have 2 32” monitors hooked up to it. We also have some pretty beefy servers for building Gentoo images.

19. Describe your home network.
Nothing that exciting, I have a Netgear WNDR3800 running OpenWRT, and a gigabit switch. Connected to that I have a Synology NAS, a smart TV that I never use the smart features of, a media streaming box, a Blu-Ray, a PS4 (I work for Sony) and a couple of computers.

20. What de/wm do you use now and what did you use in the past?
I currently use XFCE, I used to use Gnome 2, tried out Gnome 3 for 2 days, decided that it isn’t for me so created a huge package.mask to mask it. I stuck with that for several months, then decided I should switch to something else. I tried out Cinnamon for a bit, played with E17, considered Mate but then settled on XFCE.

21. What gives you the most enjoyment within the Gentoo community?
In general developers get along pretty well, this is more true on IRC than on the mailing lists. Also, at conferences there is a strong feeling of community among the Gentoo developers who are attending the conference.

22. How did you get the nick (chutzpah)?
It’s kind of a silly story. Way back when I first started hanging out online (early 90s) I needed a nick. I ended up choosing the name of a particularly challenging Ski Trail at the Sunday River ski resort in Maine. I have been using the name ever since.

Council News

This month’s big issue was to compile a preliminary list of features that could go into the next EAPI. It probably does not make sense to go into all the technical details here; you can find the accepted items in the meeting summaries [1,2,3] or on a separate wiki page [4]. One user-visible change will be that from EAPI=6 on every ebuild should accept user patches from /etc/portage/patches [5], as many do already today. Another one will be that(given an implementation in Portage is ready in time) a new type of use-flags will be introduced that can be used to, e.g., only pull in run-time dependencies; toggling such a useflag does not require a rebuild of the package.

In addition, some of us prepared a proposal to make it in the end easier for developers to host semi-official services within the gentoo.org domain [6]. This still needs work and is definitely not something the council can do on its own, but the general idea was given clear support.

Election News

The nomination process is complete, and voting is now open. This year’s candidates are blueness, dberkholz, dilfridge, jlec, patrick, pinkbyte, radhermit, rich0, ryao,TomWij, ulm, williamh, and zerochaos. Additionally, almost every developer was nominated for the council. Elections will be open until 2359 UTC on July 14, and results should be posted around July 16. We’ve already had around 30 people vote, but there are 200 more developers who can vote. Get out there and vote!

Featured New Project: Hardened Musl

(by Anthony G. Basile)

The hardened musl project aims to build and maintain full stage3 tarballs for amd64, arm, mips and i686 architectures using musl as a its C standard library rather than glibc. The “hardened” aspect means that we will also make use of toolchain hardening features so that the resulting userland executables and libraries are more resistant to exploit, although we also provide a “vanilla” flavor without any hardening. In every respect, these stages will be like regular Gentoo stages, except glibc will be replaced by musl.

musl, like uClibc, is ideal for embedded systems although both can be used for servers and desktops. Embedded systems generally have three needs beyond regular systems: 1) They need to have a small footprint both on their storage device and in RAM. 2) They need speed for real time applications. 3) And in some situations, they need their executables to be statically linked. A typical embedded system has has a minimally configured busybox for some needed utilities as well as whatever service the image is to provide, eg. some httpd service. The stages we are producing are not really embedded stages because they don’t use busybox to provide some minimal set of utilities; rather, they use the full set of utilities provided by coreutils, util-linux and friends. This makes these stages ideal as development platforms for building custom embedded images [1] or expanded into a server or desktop system.

However, be warned! If you try to build a full desktop system, you will hit breakage since musl adheres closely to standards while many packages do not. We are working on getting patches [2] for as a full XFCE4 desktop as we did for uClibc [3]. On the other hand, I’ve had lots of success building servers and routers from those stages without any extra patching.

[1] An example of the hardened uClibc stages being used this way is “Real Time And Tiny” (aka RAT) Gentoo.
[2] These patches are house on the musl branch of the hardened dev overlay.
[3] As a subproject of the Hardened uClibc project, maintain a full XFCE4 desktop based on uClibc, affectionately named “Lilblue” after the Little Blue Penguin, a smaller relative of the Gentoo.

Gentoo Developer Moves

Summary

Gentoo is made up of 237 active developers, of which 35 are currently away.
Gentoo has recruited a total of 799 developers since its inception.

Changes

The following developers have recently changed roles:
None this month

Additions

The following developers have recently joined the project:

Moves

The following developers recently left the Gentoo project:
None this month

Portage

This section summarizes the current state of the portage tree.

Architectures 45
Categories 162
Packages 17529
Ebuilds 37513
Architecture Stable Testing Total % of Packages
alpha 3604 551 4155 23.70%
amd64 10781 6247 17028 97.14%
amd64-fbsd 0 1578 1578 9.00%
arm 2662 1726 4388 25.03%
hppa 3059 482 3541 20.20%
ia64 3181 620 3801 21.68%
m68k 623 82 705 4.02%
mips 4 2386 2390 13.63%
ppc 6819 2375 9194 52.45%
ppc64 4317 875 5192 29.62%
s390 1486 316 1802 10.28%
sh 1681 387 2068 11.80%
sparc 4122 896 5018 28.63%
sparc-fbsd 0 316 316 1.80%
x86 11444 5308 16752 95.57%
x86-fbsd 0 3236 3236 18.46%

gmn-portage-stats-2013-11

Security

The following GLSAs have been released by the Security Team

GLSA Package Description Bug
201406-36 net-nds/openldap OpenLDAP: Multiple vulnerabilities 290345
201406-35 net-im/openfire Openfire: Multiple vulnerabilities 266129
201406-34 kde-base/kdelibs KDE Libraries: Multiple vulnerabilities 358025
201406-33 net-analyzer/wireshark Wireshark: Multiple vulnerabilities 503792
201406-32 dev-java/icedtea-bin IcedTea JDK: Multiple vulnerabilities 312297
201406-31 kde-base/konqueror Konqueror: Multiple vulnerabilities 438452
201406-30 app-admin/sudo sudo: Privilege escalation 503586
201406-29 net-misc/spice-gtk spice-gtk: Privilege escalation 435694
201406-28 media-video/libav Libav: Multiple vulnerabilities 439052
201406-27 None polkit Spice-Gtk systemd HPLIP libvirt: Privilege escalation 484486
201406-26 dev-python/django Django: Multiple vulnerabilities 508514
201406-25 net-misc/asterisk Asterisk: Multiple vulnerabilities 513102
201406-24 net-dns/dnsmasq Dnsmasq: Denial of Service 436894
201406-23 app-admin/denyhosts DenyHosts: Denial of Service 495130
201406-22 media-libs/nas Network Audio System: Multiple vulnerabilities 484480
201406-21 net-misc/curl cURL: Multiple vulnerabilities 505864
201406-20 www-servers/nginx nginx: Arbitrary code execution 505018
201406-19 dev-libs/nss Mozilla Network Security Service: Multiple vulnerabilities 455558
201406-18 x11-terms/rxvt-unicode rxvt-unicode: User-assisted execution of arbitrary code 509174
201406-17 www-plugins/adobe-flash Adobe Flash Player: Multiple vulnerabilities 512888
201406-16 net-print/cups-filters cups-filters: Multiple vulnerabilities 504474
201406-15 kde-misc/kdirstat KDirStat: Arbitrary command execution 504994
201406-14 www-client/opera Opera: Multiple vulnerabilities 442044
201406-13 net-misc/memcached memcached: Multiple vulnerabilities 279386
201406-12 net-dialup/freeradius FreeRADIUS: Arbitrary code execution 501754
201406-11 x11-libs/libXfont libXfont: Multiple vulnerabilities 510250
201406-10 www-servers/lighttpd lighttpd: Multiple vulnerabilities 392581
201406-09 net-libs/gnutls GnuTLS: Multiple vulnerabilities 501282
201406-08 www-plugins/adobe-flash Adobe Flash Player: Multiple vulnerabilities 510278
201406-07 net-analyzer/echoping Echoping: Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities 349569
201406-06 media-sound/mumble Mumble: Multiple vulnerabilities 500486
201406-05 mail-client/mutt Mutt: Arbitrary code execution 504462
201406-04 dev-util/systemtap SystemTap: Denial of Service 405345
201406-03 net-analyzer/fail2ban Fail2ban: Multiple vulnerabilities 364883
201406-02 app-arch/libarchive libarchive: Multiple vulnerabilities 366687
201406-01 None D-Bus GLib: Privilege escalation 436028

Package Removals/Additions

Removals

Package Developer Date
dev-python/python-gnutls mrueg 02 Jun 2014
dev-ruby/fastthread mrueg 07 Jun 2014
dev-perl/perl-PBS zlogene 11 Jun 2014
games-strategy/openxcom mr_bones_ 14 Jun 2014
media-plugins/vdr-noepgmenu hd_brummy 15 Jun 2014
net-mail/fetchyahoo eras 16 Jun 2014
app-emacs/redo ulm 17 Jun 2014
games-emulation/boycott-advance-sdl ulm 17 Jun 2014
games-emulation/neopocott ulm 17 Jun 2014

Additions

Package Developer Date
dev-ruby/sshkit graaff 01 Jun 2014
media-gfx/plantuml pva 02 Jun 2014
dev-python/sphinxcontrib-plantuml pva 02 Jun 2014
dev-util/kdevelop-qmake zx2c4 02 Jun 2014
x11-misc/easystroke jer 04 Jun 2014
dev-python/docopt jlec 04 Jun 2014
dev-python/funcsigs jlec 04 Jun 2014
virtual/funcsigs jlec 04 Jun 2014
dev-python/common jlec 04 Jun 2014
dev-python/tabulate jlec 04 Jun 2014
app-admin/ngxtop jlec 04 Jun 2014
dev-python/natsort idella4 05 Jun 2014
dev-libs/liblinear jer 05 Jun 2014
net-analyzer/arp-scan jer 06 Jun 2014
www-servers/mongoose zmedico 06 Jun 2014
dev-ruby/spring graaff 06 Jun 2014
dev-ruby/wikicloth mrueg 06 Jun 2014
net-analyzer/ipgen jer 07 Jun 2014
sec-policy/selinux-dropbox swift 07 Jun 2014
dev-python/jingo idella4 08 Jun 2014
dev-python/click rafaelmartins 08 Jun 2014
dev-python/Coffin idella4 08 Jun 2014
dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme bicatali 09 Jun 2014
dev-ruby/netrc graaff 09 Jun 2014
dev-ruby/delayer naota 11 Jun 2014
www-client/qtweb jer 11 Jun 2014
dev-python/pyoembed rafaelmartins 12 Jun 2014
www-apps/blohg-tumblelog rafaelmartins 12 Jun 2014
dev-python/jaraco-utils patrick 12 Jun 2014
dev-python/more-itertools patrick 12 Jun 2014
dev-libs/libserialport vapier 12 Jun 2014
dev-python/pretty-yaml chutzpah 12 Jun 2014
net-libs/phodav dev-zero 13 Jun 2014
dev-python/django-haystack idella4 14 Jun 2014
sci-libs/libsigrok vapier 14 Jun 2014
sci-libs/libsigrokdecode vapier 14 Jun 2014
sci-electronics/sigrok-cli vapier 14 Jun 2014
sys-firmware/sigrok-firmware-fx2lafw vapier 14 Jun 2014
sci-electronics/pulseview vapier 14 Jun 2014
dev-ruby/hashr mrueg 14 Jun 2014
games-strategy/openxcom maksbotan 14 Jun 2014
games-engines/openxcom mr_bones_ 14 Jun 2014
net-analyzer/icinga2 prometheanfire 15 Jun 2014
dev-python/pyxenstore robbat2 15 Jun 2014
sys-cluster/ampi jauhien 16 Jun 2014
dev-python/pyjwt idella4 17 Jun 2014
app-emulation/openstack-guest-agents-unix robbat2 22 Jun 2014
dev-python/plyr idella4 22 Jun 2014
app-misc/relevation radhermit 22 Jun 2014
media-sound/lyvi idella4 22 Jun 2014
app-emulation/xe-guest-utilities robbat2 23 Jun 2014
net-misc/yandex-disk pinkbyte 24 Jun 2014
sec-policy/selinux-resolvconf swift 25 Jun 2014
dev-python/json-rpc chutzpah 26 Jun 2014
app-backup/cyphertite grknight 26 Jun 2014
dev-python/jdcal idella4 26 Jun 2014
net-libs/libcrafter jer 26 Jun 2014
net-analyzer/tracebox jer 26 Jun 2014
dev-python/python-catcher jlec 27 Jun 2014
dev-python/python-exconsole jlec 27 Jun 2014
dev-python/reconfigure jlec 27 Jun 2014
sys-block/sas2ircu robbat2 27 Jun 2014
sys-block/sas3ircu robbat2 27 Jun 2014
dev-ruby/psych mrueg 27 Jun 2014

Bugzilla

The Gentoo community uses Bugzilla to record and track bugs, notifications, suggestions and other interactions with the development team.

Activity

The following tables and charts summarize the activity on Bugzilla between 31 May 2014 and 30 June 2014. Not fixed means bugs that were resolved as NEEDINFO, WONTFIX, CANTFIX, INVALID or UPSTREAM.

Bug Activity Number
New 1991
Closed 1065
Not fixed 171
Duplicates 147
Total 5843
Blocker 5
Critical 18
Major 64

Closed bug ranking

The following table outlines the teams and developers with the most bugs resolved during this period

Rank Team/Developer Bug Count
1 Gentoo Security 152
2 Gentoo Linux Gnome Desktop Team 54
3 Python Gentoo Team 39
4 Gentoo KDE team 33
5 Gentoo Games 28
6 Gentoo Ruby Team 20
7 Default Assignee for Orphaned Packages 20
8 media-video herd 17
9 Julian Ospald (hasufell) 17
10 Others 684

Assigned bug ranking

The developers and teams who have been assigned the most bugs during this period are as follows.

Rank Team/Developer Bug Count
1 Gentoo Security 97
2 Gentoo Linux Gnome Desktop Team 91
3 Gentoo Linux bug wranglers 91
4 Python Gentoo Team 70
5 Gentoo Games 64
6 Gentoo KDE team 50
7 Gentoo Prefix 49
8 Default Assignee for Orphaned Packages 49
9 Gentoo's Team for Core System packages 35
10 Others 1394

Tips of the month

(by Sven Vermeulen)
Quick one-time patching of packages

If you want to patch a package once (for instance to test a patch provided through bugzilla), just start building the package, but when the following is shown, interrupt it (Ctrl-Z):

>>> Source prepared.

Then go to the builddir (like /var/tmp/portage/net-misc/tor-0.2.4.22/work/tor-0.2.4.22) and apply the patch. Then continue the build (with “fg” command).

Verify integrity of installed software

If you don’t want the full-fledged features of tools like AIDE, you can use qcheck to verify this for installed packages:
~# qcheck -e vim-core
Checking app-editors/vim-core-7.4.273 ...
MD5-DIGEST: /usr/share/vim/vim74/doc/tags
* 1783 out of 1784 files are good

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July 02, 2014
Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)
Multilib in Gentoo (July 02, 2014, 19:03 UTC)

One of the areas in Gentoo that is seeing lots of active development is its ongoing effort to have proper multilib support throughout the tree. In the past, this support was provided through special emulation packages, but those have the (serious) downside that they are often outdated, sometimes even having security issues.

But this active development is not because we all just started looking in the same direction. No, it’s thanks to a few developers that have put their shoulders under this effort, directing the development workload where needed and pressing other developers to help in this endeavor. And pushing is more than just creating bugreports and telling developers to do something.

It is also about communicating, giving feedback and patiently helping developers when they have questions.

I can only hope that other activities within Gentoo and its potential broad impact work on this as well. Kudos to all involved, as well as all developers that have undoubtedly put numerous hours of development effort in the hope to make their ebuilds multilib-capable (I know I had to put lots of effort in it, but I find it is worthwhile and a big learning opportunity).

Anthony Basile a.k.a. blueness (homepage, bugs)

A few years back the Lemote Yeeloong made a splash in the open source community as the world’s first completely “open” system requiring no proprietary software.  Even its BIOS is open source.  It wasn’t long before pictures of Richard Stallman hugging his Yeeloong started popping up throughout the Internet, further boosting its popularity.  I became interested because the Yeeloong involves everything that’s near and dear to my heart: 1) Its loongson2f processor is a mips64el system and I love the slick nature of RISC architectures.  I can actually make sense of its ISA and the assembly.  2) As a 64-bit mips, it supports multiple ABIs, and I love playing with different ABIs.  The images I push come with o32, n32 and n64.  3) While other distros, like Debian, have ported their wares to the Yeeloong, these don’t have the hardening goodness that Gentoo does and so this was an added challenge.  Thanks to Magnus Granberg (zorry) for getting his hardened gcc patches work in mips.  4) Finally, it is “free” as in “libre”.  It is manufactured by Lemote in China, and I like to fantisize that hackers at the NSA curse everytime they encounter one in the wild, although the reality is more likely that I’m owned by the Chinese government :/

So here was the possibility of creating a free and secure system on my favorite architecture!  A couple of summers back, I took on the challenge.  I updated some older stages3 that Matt Turner (mattst88) had prepared and went through the process of seeing what desktop packages would build, which needed patching and which were hopelessly broken on mips, usually because of dependance on x86/amd64 assembly.  The end result was a minimal XFCE4 desktop with full userland hardening.  Unfortunatley, I still don’t have a PaX kernel working, but the issues do not appear to be insurmountable.

Building the initial images was more fun than maintaining them, but I’ve been good about it and I recently prepared release 20140630.  I even started to feel out the community more, so I announced this work as a project on freecode.com, just before the site closed down :(   If you get  a new Lemote Yeeloong, give these images a try.  It’ll save you about 4 days of compiling if you want to bootstrap from a stage3 to a full desktop, not counting all the broken packages you’ll probably hit along the way.  If you’re already running one of my images then you can try to update on your own but expect a lot of conflicts/blockings etc since mips is not a stable arch.  Perhaps the next step to making this more user-friendly is for me to provide the binpkgs on some host.

 

June 29, 2014
Pavlos Ratis a.k.a. dastergon (homepage, bugs)
Accepted for Google Summer of Code 2014 (June 29, 2014, 21:00 UTC)

This year I’ve been accepted for Google Summer of Code 2014 with Gentoo Foundation for the Gentoo Keys project and my mentor will be Brian Dolbec (dol-sen). Gentoo Keys is a Python based project that aims to manage the GPG keys used for validation on users and Gentoo’s infrastructure servers. These keys will be any/all of the release keys, developer keys and any other third party keys or keyrings available or needed.

Participating in large communities and being a developer has great responsibilities. Developers have access to commit their new changes to the main repository, however, even an unintended incorrect commit in the main repository would affect the majority of the users. This issue could be addressed easily by the developer that did the mistake instantly. A less innocent case is that if a developer’s box is compromised, then the malicious user could commit malicious changes freely to the main tree. To prevent this kind of incidents, developers are requested to sign their own commits with their GPG key in order to ensure who they claim to be. It’s an extra layer of protection that helps to keep the integrity of the main repository. Gentoo Keys aims to solve that and provides its features in many scenarios like overlays and release engineering management.

Gentoo Keys will be able to verify GPG keys used for Gentoo’s release media, such as installation CD’s, Live DVD’s, packages and other GPG signed documents. In addition, it will be used by Gentoo infrastructure team to achieve GPG signed git commits in the forthcoming git migration of the main CVS tree.

Gentoo Keys is an open source project which has its code available from the very first day in Gentoo’s official repositories. Everyone is welcome to provide patches and request new features.

Source code: https://github.com/gentoo/gentoo-keys.
Weekly Reports are posted here.
Wiki page: https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Project:Gentoo-keys.

Accepted for Google Summer of Code 2014 was originally published by Pavlos Ratis at dastergon's weblog on June 30, 2014.

June 25, 2014
Patrick Lauer a.k.a. bonsaikitten (homepage, bugs)
Building Everything (June 25, 2014, 06:27 UTC)

Preparation:

  • Take recent stage3 and unpack to a temporary location
  • Set up things: make.conf, resolv.conf, keywords, ...
  • Update @system, check gcc version etc.
  • Clone this snapshot to 4 locations (4 because of CPU cores)
  • bindmount /usr/portage and friends
Run: Start a screen session for each clone. Chroot in. Apply magic oneliner:
for i in $( qsearch -NC --all | sort -R ); do 
    if $( emerge --nodeps -pk $i > /dev/null ) ; then 
        emerge --depclean; echo $i; emerge -uNDk1 $i; 
    fi; 
done
Wait 4-5 days, get >10k binary packages, lots of logfiles.

Space usage:
~2.5G logfiles
~35G distfiles
~20G binary packages
~100G temp space (/var/tmp has lots of cruft unless FEATURES="fail-clean")


Triage of these logfiles yields about 1% build failures, on average.
It's not hard to do, just tedious!

make.conf additions:
FEATURES="buildpkg split-log -news"
PORT_LOGDIR="/var/log/portage/"
MAKEOPTS="-j4"
EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS="--jobs 4"

CLEAN_DELAY="0"
EMERGE_WARNING_DELAY="0"
ACCEPT_PROPERTIES="* -interactive"

June 24, 2014
Sebastian Pipping a.k.a. sping (homepage, bugs)

Since Adobe has stopped developing Flash for Firefox and Mozilla has no plans to support the Pepper plug-in API, Rinat Ibragimov is developing a wrapper to use Google Chrome’s Pepper-based Flash plug-in with Mozilla Firefox:

GitHub: i-rinat/freshplayerplugin

A live ebuild is now available in the “betagarden” overlay. Users of non-stable Chrome can edit the plug-in path in /etc/freshwrapper.conf.

Interestingly, freshplayerplugin makes use of my library uriparser for URI handling. Very nice! :)

June 23, 2014
Michał Górny a.k.a. mgorny (homepage, bugs)
Inlining -march=native for distcc (June 23, 2014, 15:26 UTC)

-march=native is a gcc flag that enables auto-detection of CPU architecture and properties. Not only it allows you to avoid finding the correct value of -march= but also enables instruction sets that do not fit any standard CPU profile and detects the cache sizes.

Sadly, -march=native itself can’t really work well with distcc. Since the detection is performed when compiling, remote gcc invocations would use the architecture of the distcc host rather than the client. Therefore, the resulting executables would be a mix of different architectures used by distcc.

You may also find -march=native a bit opaque. For example, we had multiple bug reports about LLVM failing to build with -march=atom. However, some of the reporters were using -march=native, so we wasn’t able to immediately identify the duplicates.

In this article, I will guide you shortly on replacing -march=native with expanded compiler flags, for the benefit of distcc compatibility and more explicit build logs.

Obtaining the native flags from gcc

The first step towards replacing -march=native is to determine which flags are enabled by it. Various people suggest multiple ways of obtaining -march=native flags. For example, you can use the following call:

$ gcc -### -march=native -x c -
Using built-in specs.
COLLECT_GCC=/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/gcc-bin/4.8.3/gcc
COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/usr/libexec/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/4.8.3/lto-wrapper
Target: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
[…]
Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.8.3 (Gentoo 4.8.3 p1.1, pie-0.5.9) 
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-march=native'
 /usr/libexec/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/4.8.3/cc1 -quiet - "-march=k8-sse3" -mcx16 -msahf -mno-movbe -mno-aes -mno-pclmul -mno-popcnt -mno-abm -mno-lwp -mno-fma -mno-fma4 -mno-xop -mno-bmi -mno-bmi2 -mno-tbm -mno-avx -mno-avx2 -mno-sse4.2 -mno-sse4.1 -mno-lzcnt -mno-rtm -mno-hle -mno-rdrnd -mno-f16c -mno-fsgsbase -mno-rdseed -mno-prfchw -mno-adx -mfxsr -mno-xsave -mno-xsaveopt --param "l1-cache-size=64" --param "l1-cache-line-size=64" --param "l2-cache-size=512" "-mtune=k8" -quiet -dumpbase - -auxbase - -fstack-protector -o /tmp/cckZDyUR.s
[…]

For those more curious, a similar call can be made with -x c++ for the C++ compiler flags. The expanded optimization flags can be found in the cc1 (or cc1plus in case of C++) command line. I have highlighted the relevant flags — usually you’re looking for various -m flags and --params related to caches.

You may also notice -fstack-protector there. This is because nowadays Gentoo enables it by default. If you are using a non-Gentoo distcc host (why would you have a non-Gentoo host in the first place?), you may want to pass it explicitly as well.

You may find the above output a bit oververbose. While this technically isn’t a problem, it clutters the build logs. So, let’s filter it a bit.

Filtering out redundant flags

Most of the -m flags listed above are redundant, being either equivalent to the defaults, or enabled implicitly by -march. For example, on the host providing the example output none of -mno-* flags were actually required, and -msahf was enabled implicitly.

You can safely assume that in Gentoo all -m flags are disabled by default. To find out what flags are implied by the -march, let's look at gcc sources.

$ tar -xf /var/cache/portage/distfiles/gcc-4.8.3.tar.bz2
$ find gcc-4.8.3/gcc/config -name '*.c' -exec grep k8-sse3 {} +
gcc-4.8.3/gcc/config/i386/i386.c:      {"k8-sse3", PROCESSOR_K8, CPU_K8,
gcc-4.8.3/gcc/config/i386/driver-i386.c:	cpu = "k8-sse3";

The first file has what we're looking for. Inside, you can find:

      {"k8-sse3", PROCESSOR_K8, CPU_K8,
	PTA_64BIT | PTA_MMX | PTA_3DNOW | PTA_3DNOW_A | PTA_SSE
	| PTA_SSE2 | PTA_SSE3 | PTA_NO_SAHF | PTA_PRFCHW | PTA_FXSR},

So -march=k8-sse3 would enable -mmmx, -m3dnow, -msse and so on. If you compare this list with the output obtained before, you'd notice that the -march option didn't enable any flags that would need to be disabled explicitly, so all -mno-* flags can be omitted. Similarly, -mfxsr is redundant. But -mcx16 and -msahf seem relevant since the former is not listed there at all, and the latter is disabled by default.

After filtering out the unnecessary flags, we can create both distcc- and eye-friendly CFLAGS like:

CFLAGS='-O2 -pipe -march=k8-sse3 -mcx16 -msahf -param l1-cache-size=64 --param l1-cache-line-size=64 --param l2-cache-size=512'

June 18, 2014
Diego E. Pettenò a.k.a. flameeyes (homepage, bugs)
A new XBMC box (June 18, 2014, 22:07 UTC)

A couple of months ago I was at LinuxTag in Berlin with the friends from VIdeoLAN and we shared a booth with the XBMC project. It was interesting to see the newest version of XBMC running, and I decided that it was time for me to get a new XBMC box — last time I used XBMC was on my AppleTV and while it was not strictly disappointing it was not terrific either after a while.

At any rate, we spoke about what options are available nowadays to make a good XBMC set up, and while the RaspberryPi is all the rage nowadays, my previous experience with the platform made it a no-go. It also requires you to find a place where to store your data (the USB support on the Pi is not good for many things) and you most likely will have to re-encode animes to the Right Format™ so that the RPi VideoCore can properly decode them: anything that can't be hardware-accelerated will not play on such a limited hardware.

The alternative has been the Intel NUC (Next Unit of Computing), which Intel sells in pre-configured "barebone" kits, some of which include wifi antennas, 2.5" disk bays, and a CIR (Consumer Infrared Receiver) that allows you to use a remote such as the one for the XBox 360 to control the unit. I decided to look into the options and I settled on the D54250WYKH which has a Core i5 CPU, space for both a wireless card (I got the Intel 7260 802.11ac which is dual-radio and supports the new 11ac protocol, even though my router is not 11ac yet), and a mSATA SSD (I got a Transcend 128GB one), as well the 2.5" bay that allows me to use a good old spinning-rust harddrive to store the bulk of the data.

Be careful and don't repeat my mistake! I originally ordered a very cool Western Digital Caviar Green 2TB HDD but while it is a 2.5" HDD, it does not fit properly in the provided cradle; the same problem used to happen with the first series of 1TB HDDs on PlayStation 3s. I decided to keep the HDD and bring it with me to Ireland, as I don't otherwise have a 2TB HDD, instead I opted for a HGST 1.5TB HDD (no link for this one as I bought it at Fry's the same day I picked up the rest, if nothing else because I had no will to wait, and also because I forgot I needed a keyboard).

While I could have just put OpenELEC on the device, I decided instead to install my trusted Gentoo — a Core i5 with 16GB of RAM and a good SSD is well in its ability to run it. And since I was finally setting something up that needs (for myself) to turn on very quickly, I decided to give systemd a go (especially as Robbins is now considered a co-maintainer for OpenRC which drains all my will to keep using it). The effect has been stunning, but there are a few issues that needs to be ironed out; for instance, as far as I can tell, there is no unit for rngd which means that both my laptop (now converted to systemd) and the device have no entropy, even though they both have the rdrand instruction; I'll try to fix this lack myself.

Another huge problem for me has been getting the audio to work; while I've been told by the XBMC people that the NUC are perfectly well supported, I couldn't for the sake of me get the audio to work for days. At the end it was Alexander Patrakov who pointed out to intel_iommu=on,igfx_off as a kernel option to get it to work (kernel bug #67321 still unfixed). So if you have no HDMI output on your NUC, that's what you have to do!

Speaking about XBMC and Gentoo, the latest version as of last week (which was not the latest upstream version, as a new one got released exactly while I was installing the box), seem to force you to install FFmpeg over libav – I honestly felt a bit sorry for the developers of XBMC at LinuxTag while they were trying to tell me how the multi-threaded h264 decoder from FFmpeg is great… Anton, who wrote it, is a libav developer! – but even after you do that, it seems like it does not link it in, preferring a bundled copy of it instead. Which also doesn't seem to build support for multithread (uh?). This is something that I'll have to look into once I'm back in Dublin.

Other than that, there isn't much to say; the one remaining big issue is to figure out how to properly have XBMC start up at boot without nasty autologin hacks on systemd. And of course finding a better way than using a transmission user to start the Transmission daemon, or at least find a better way to share the downloads with XBMC itself. Probably separating the XBMC and Transmission users is a good idea.

Expect more posts on what's going on with my XBMC box in the future, and take this one as a reference about the NUC audio issue.

June 17, 2014
Patrick Lauer a.k.a. bonsaikitten (homepage, bugs)
EAPI statistics, again (June 17, 2014, 07:13 UTC)

Start: Thu Jan 16 08:18:45 UTC 2014
End:   Mon Jun 16 00:00:01 UTC 2014

EAPI 0:   5966 ebuilds (15.78 percent) ->  5477 ebuilds (14.40 percent)
EAPI 1:    370 ebuilds (0.98 percent)  ->   215 ebuilds ( 0.57 percent)
EAPI 2:   3335 ebuilds (8.82 percent)  ->  2938 ebuilds ( 7.72 percent)
EAPI 3:   3005 ebuilds (7.95 percent)  ->  2585 ebuilds ( 6.79 percent)
EAPI 4:  12385 ebuilds (32.76 percent) -> 10375 ebuilds (27.27 percent)
EAPI 5:  12742 ebuilds (33.71 percent) -> 16455 ebuilds (43.25 percent)
Total    37803 -> 38045

EAPI 0 change:  -8.2%
EAPI 1 change: -58.1%
EAPI 2 change: -11.9%
EAPI 3 change: -14.0%
EAPI 4 change: -16.2%
EAPI 5 change: +29.1%
So over the last 5 months we had about 2% increase in the total amount of ebuilds. The only growing class is EAPI5, which is quite excellent.

EAPI 0 is the slowest decreasing, as long as there's no coordinated effort to get rid of it it'll be there forever. EAPI1 is now very close to extinction.

EAPI 2,3 and 4 are slowly shrinking away, but at this rate it'll still take years.

June 16, 2014
Gentoo Haskell Herd a.k.a. haskell (homepage, bugs)
unsafePerformIO and missing NOINLINE (June 16, 2014, 16:10 UTC)

Two months ago Ivan asked me if we had working darcs-2.8 for ghc-7.8 in gentoo. We had a workaround to compile darcs to that day, but darcs did not work reliably. Sometimes it needed 2-3 attempts to pull a repository.

A bit later I’ve decided to actually look at failure case (Issued on darcs bugtracker) and do something about it. My idea to debug the mystery was simple: to reproduce the difference on the same source for ghc-7.6/7.8 and start plugging debug info unless difference I can understand will pop up.

Darcs has great debug-verbose option for most of commands. I used debugMessage function to litter code with more debugging statements unless complete horrible image would emerge.

As you can see in bugtracker issue I posted there various intermediate points of what I thought went wrong (don’t expect those comments to have much sense).

The immediate consequence of a breakage was file overwrite of partially downloaded file. The event timeline looked simple:

  • darcs scheduled for download the same file twice (two jobs in download queue)
  • first download job did finish
  • notified waiter started processing of that downloaded temp file
  • second download started truncating previous complete download
  • notified waiter continued processing partially downloadeed file and detected breakage

Thus first I’ve decided to fix the consequence. It did not fix problems completely, sometimes darcs pull complained about remote repositories still being broken (missing files), but it made errors saner (only remote side was allegedly at fault).

Ideally, that file overwrite should not happen in the first place. Partially, it was temp file predictability.

But, OK. Then i’ve started digging why 7.6/7.8 request download patterns were so severely different. At first I thought of new IO manager being a cause of difference. The paper says it fixed haskell thread scheduling issue (paper is nice even for leisure reading!):

GHC’s RTS had a bug in which yield
placed the thread back on the front of the run queue. This bug
was uncovered by our use of yield
which requires that the thread
be placed at the end of the run queue

Thus I was expecting the bug from this side.

Then being determined to dig A Lot in darcs source code I’ve decided to disable optimizations (-O0) to speedup rebuilds. And, the bug has vanished.

That made the click: unsafePerformIO might be the real problem. I’ve grepped for all unsafePerformIO instances and examined all definition sites.

Two were especially interesting:

-- src/Darcs/Util/Global.hs
-- ...
_crcWarningList :: IORef CRCWarningList
_crcWarningList = unsafePerformIO $ newIORef []
{-# NOINLINE _crcWarningList #-}
-- ...
_badSourcesList :: IORef [String]
_badSourcesList = unsafePerformIO $ newIORef []
{- NOINLINE _badSourcesList -}
-- ...

Did you spot the bug?

Thus The Proper Fix was pushed upstream a month ago. Which means ghc is now able to inline things more aggressively (and _badSourcesList were inlined in all user sites, throwing out all update sites).

I don’t know if those newIORef [] can be de-CSEd if types would have the same representation. Ideally the module also needs -fno-cse, or get rid of unsafePerformIO completely :].

(Side thought: top-level global variables in C style are surprisingly non-trivial in "pure" haskell. They are easy to use via peek / poke (in a racy way), but are hard to declare / initialize.)

I had a question wondered how many haskell packages manage to misspell ghc pragma decparations in a way darcs did it. And there still _is_ a few of such offenders:

$ fgrep -R NOINLINE . | grep -v '{-# NOINLINE' | grep '{-'
--
ajhc-0.8.0.10/lib/jhc/Jhc/List.hs:{- NOINLINE filterFB #-}
ajhc-0.8.0.10/lib/jhc/Jhc/List.hs:{- NOINLINE iterateFB #-}
ajhc-0.8.0.10/lib/jhc/Jhc/List.hs:{- NOINLINE mapFB #-}
--
darcs-2.8.4/src/Darcs/Global.hs:{- NOINLINE _badSourcesList -}
darcs-2.8.4/src/Darcs/Global.hs:{- NOINLINE _reachableSourcesList -}
--
dph-lifted-copy-0.7.0.1/Data/Array/Parallel.hs:{- NOINLINE emptyP #-}
--
dph-par-0.5.1.1/Data/Array/Parallel.hs:{- NOINLINE emptyP #-}
--
dph-seq-0.5.1.1/Data/Array/Parallel.hs:{- NOINLINE emptyP #-}
--
freesect-0.8/FreeSectAnnotated.hs:{- # NOINLINE showSSI #-}
freesect-0.8/FreeSectAnnotated.hs:{- # NOINLINE FreeSectAnnotated.showSSI #-}
freesect-0.8/FreeSect.hs:{- # NOINLINE fs_warn_flaw #-}
--
http-proxy-0.0.8/Network/HTTP/Proxy/ReadInt.hs:{- NOINLINE readInt64MH #-}
http-proxy-0.0.8/Network/HTTP/Proxy/ReadInt.hs:{- NOINLINE mhDigitToInt #-}
--
lhc-0.10/lib/base/src/GHC/PArr.hs:{- NOINLINE emptyP #-}
--
property-list-0.1.0.2/src/Data/PropertyList/Binary/Float.hs:{- NOINLINE doubleToWord64 -}
property-list-0.1.0.2/src/Data/PropertyList/Binary/Float.hs:{- NOINLINE word64ToDouble -}
property-list-0.1.0.2/src/Data/PropertyList/Binary/Float.hs:{- NOINLINE floatToWord32 -}
property-list-0.1.0.2/src/Data/PropertyList/Binary/Float.hs:{- NOINLINE word32ToFloat -}
--
warp-2.0.3.3/Network/Wai/Handler/Warp/ReadInt.hs:{- NOINLINE readInt64MH #-}
warp-2.0.3.3/Network/Wai/Handler/Warp/ReadInt.hs:{- NOINLINE mhDigitToInt #-}

Looks like there is yet something to fix :]

Would be great if hlint would be able to detect pragma-like comments and warn when comment contents is a valid pragma, but comment brackets don’t allow it to fire.

{- NOINLINE foo -} -- bad
{- NOINLINE foo #-} -- bad
{-# NOINLINE foo -} -- bad
{-# NOINLINE foo #-} -- ok

Thanks for reading!


June 15, 2014
Sven Vermeulen a.k.a. swift (homepage, bugs)
Gentoo Hardened, June 2014 (June 15, 2014, 19:28 UTC)

Friday the Gentoo Hardened project had its monthly online meeting to talk about the progress within the various tools, responsibilities and subprojects.

On the toolchain part, Zorry mentioned that GCC 4.9 and 4.8.3 will have SSP enabled by default. The hardened profiles will still have a different SSP setting than the default (so yes, there will still be differences between the two) but this will help in securing the Gentoo default installations.

Zorry is also working on upstreaming the PIE patches for GCC 4.10.

Next to the regular toolchain, blueness also mentioned his intentions to launch a Hardened musl subproject which will focus on the musl C library (rather than glibc or uclibc) and hardening.

On the kernel side, two recent kernel vulnerabilities in the vanilla kernel Linux (pty race and privilege escalation through futex code) painted the discussions on IRC recently. Some versions of the hardened kernels are still available in the tree, but the more recent (non-vulnerable) kernels have proven not to be as stable as we’d hoped.

The pty race vulnerability is possibly not applicable to hardened kernels thanks to grSecurity, due to its protection to access the kernel symbols.

The latest kernels should not be used with KSTACKOVERFLOW on production systems though; there are some issues reported with virtio network interface support (on the guests) and ZFS.

Also, on the Pax support, the install-xattr saga continues. The new wrapper that blueness worked in dismissed some code to keep the PWD so the $S directory knowledge was “lost”. This is now fixed. All that is left is to have the wrapper included and stabilized.

On SELinux side, it was the usual set of progress. Policy stabilization and user land application and library stabilization. The latter is waiting a bit because of the multilib support that’s now being integrated in the ebuilds as well (and thus has a larger set of dependencies to go through) but no show-stoppers there. Also, the SELinux documentation portal on the wiki was briefly mentioned.

Also, the policycoreutils vulnerability has been worked around so it is no longer applicable to us.

On the hardened profiles, we had a nice discussion on enabling capabilities support (and move towards capabilities instead of setuid binaries), which klondike will try to tackle during the summer holidays.

As I didn’t take notes during the meeting, this post might miss a few (and I forgot to enable logging as well) but as Zorry sends out the meeting logs anyway later, you can read up there ;-)

June 13, 2014
Patrick Lauer a.k.a. bonsaikitten (homepage, bugs)
A one-line Tinderbox (June 13, 2014, 08:33 UTC)

Needs portage-utils, best to run in a chroot:

for i in $( qsearch --all -CN | sort -R ); do emerge -1 $i; emerge --depclean; done

June 10, 2014
Andreas K. Hüttel a.k.a. dilfridge (homepage, bugs)
Please test =app-admin/perl-cleaner-2.14 (June 10, 2014, 20:26 UTC)

We've made a few small updates to perl-cleaner that should get you around subslot issues much better in the future.
If you are planning to do any major Perl update on your Gentoo box in the near future, please as a first step update to =app-admin/perl-cleaner-2.14, which is currently in ~arch but in my opinion a good stabilization candidate. This will hopefully give you a much better upgrade of your Perl modules.
Of course any feedback is appreciated, and if you encounter problems, please file bugs! If nothing unexpected happens, =app-admin/perl-cleaner-2.14 will go stable in a month.

June 06, 2014
Remi Cardona a.k.a. remi (homepage, bugs)

A couple of days ago, like everyone using ~arch, I upgraded my Gnome desktop to 3.12. Though a few packages failed to build, the upgrade itself went pretty smooth. Hats off to the Gnome herders.

Overall, 3.12 feels like a solid and well put together release. There were a few disappointments. The biggest of which being the removal of changing tab titles in gnome-terminal. I’ll spare everyone a long rant but this is feature I have been using extensively for the better part of a decade and I’m very disappointed to see this useful features go away without much justification. Material for another blog post… maybe.

One thing I did notice really quickly is the new geolocation entry in the shell’s main top-right menu. Not being a fan of geolocation, I went out to see how I could turn it off by default system-wide as my system has more than one regular user.

Going through dconf-editor, I found the correct setting key: org.gnome.shell.location.max-accuracy-level. This key is an enum and the correct value (at least to my taste) is ‘off’. Setting this for each user is a matter of running “gsettings set”. However, to change the default value, a little elbow grease is required.

GLib’s GSettings is actually an API for various backends. The one we use on Linux is dconf. So this is what I’ll have to bang on. This https://wiki.gnome.org/action/show/Projects/dconf/SystemAdministrators basically has all the reasoning behind it all. I’ll just summarize what I did.

  1. Create a /etc/dconf/profile/user with the following content:
    user-db:user
    system-db:site
  2. Create a matching ‘site’ settings database (I could have called it anything really) in /etc/dconf/db/site.d/ containing my new default settings file ’00_settings’
    [org/gnome/shell/location]
    max-accuracy-level='off'
  3. Run ‘dconf-update’ which will translate the INI-like settings file into a binary dconf file ‘/etc/dconf/db/site’

Now, I assume GSettings did not pick up this new profile on its own, so I had to restart my session. But from there, all changes to the settings file followed by a ‘dconf update’ automatically propagates to running applications, gnome-shell included.

Overall, this was easier than I anticipated. Hope that helps anyone trying to do similar things.

Michael Palimaka a.k.a. kensington (homepage, bugs)
Reviving the tinderbox (June 06, 2014, 19:50 UTC)

tinderboxOne of the problems faced by the tinderbox of yesteryear is the picking information out of logs, as well as the reliance of one person to interpret the results. With this in mind, I’ve been doing some work to improve accessibility of this data and have produced a tinderbox interface.

A Portage bashrc (based on the original work by Diego Elio Pettenò) collects QA information about builds, and stores it in individual files to make it easier to operate on – eliminating a lot of the need to parse logs.

You’ll notice the interface lists all packages – not just those with a recent build. This allows for a central location to report static analysis information from tools such as repoman and pkgcore-checks. Other lesser-known tools are supported, with experimental reporting of sub-slot candidates and automated dependency checking.

What’s next? I’d like to add ways to find packages beyond the usual category breakdown – such as by maintainer or builds by architecture. There’s more build-time checks to add, and I’m sure there’s other static analysis tools out there too. I don’t personally have the resources to build packages at the scale seen previously, so last but of course not least, more building power is needed. Fortunately, it’s quite easy to collate the tinderbox data from multiple sources so we may be able to ‘crowd-source’ if necessary.

As always, comments/feedback/suggestions welcome.

Hello users,

TL;DR: x86 (32bit) support is going away soon, if you use Sabayon x86_64 (64bit), you can ignore this.

in an effort of decreasing our computing and human capacity requirements, I am going to start the process that deprecates Sabayon x86 (32bit) images, package repositories and their support.
x86_64 (or AMD64) has been introduced one decade ago. Yes, it was 2004, pretty much the same year I started messing with a binary Gentoo-based distro.

It’s time to move on, free up resources and focus on what matters. 32bit is not important anymore and modern computers come with tons of GB of RAM. At the same time, I don’t see x32 going anywhere. Instead, I see the need to standardize on one single x86 architecture. Some distributions have started doing the same, for instance, RHEL 7 will not see any 32bit version. Windows 8, well, yes, said goodbye to 32bit as well.

If you are still stuck with 32bit CPUs, there are 5 things you could do:

  1. Make sure that your CPU does not really support x86_64. You may be surprised to know that it might run x86_64 code just fine.
  2. Given our deprecation roadmap, migrate your stuff over a more recent system. eBay, Amazon, are your friends. A second-hand x86_64 system can cost you less than $100.
  3. Migrate to other distros and pray they won’t kill 32bit anytime soon (time is not in your favor).
  4. Migrate your Sabayon system to Gentoo/Portage, basically compiling your own stuff. Alternatively, setup your own Entropy repository in order to keep your system up-to-date.
  5. Burn your motherboard and CPU by doing insane overclocking and then, when they die, violently hit them with a hammer while screaming “You shall not compute!”.

Our deprecation roadmap is as follows:

  • June 2014: stop offering x86 images off our download pages, keep them on mirrors.
  • July/August 2014: stop building x86 images as part of our daily and monthly release rollout.
  • October 2014: stop offering x86 images from our mirrors.
  • November 2014: stop offering package updates, including security updates, for x86 images.
  • January 2015: stop offering packages from our mirrors.

After January 2015, you will not be able to install new packages as well. The only way to keep your system up-to-date is to use Portage (plus our overlays) or Entropy (by maintaining your own repository). Our x86_64 images are multilib, which means that you can run 32bit code on them just fine.


June 04, 2014
Alexys Jacob a.k.a. ultrabug (homepage, bugs)
Consul on Gentoo Linux (June 04, 2014, 21:10 UTC)

As a clustering and distributed architecture enthusiast, I’m naturally interested in software providing neat ways to coordinate any kind of state/configuration/you-name-it over a large number of machines.

My quest, as many of you I guess, were so far limited to tools like zookeeper (packaged on my overlay but with almost no echo) and doozerd (last commit nearly 6 months ago) which both cover some of the goals listed above with more or less flavors and elegance (sorry guys, JAVA is NOT elegant to me).

I recently heard about consul, a new attempt to solve some of those problems in an interesting way while providing some rich fuctionnalities so I went on giving it a try and naturally started packaging it so others can too.

WTF is consul ?

consul logo

Consul is a few months’ old project (and already available on Gentoo !) from the guys making Vagrant. I especially like its datacenter centric architecture, intuitive deployment and its DNS + HTTP API query mecanisms. This sounds promising so far !

This is a descripion taken from the Hashicorp’s blog :

Consul is a solution for service discovery and configuration. Consul is completely distributed, highly available, and scales to thousands of nodes and services across multiple datacenters.

Some concrete problems Consul solves: finding the services applications need (database, queue, mail server, etc.), configuring services with key/value information such as enabling maintenance mode for a web application, and health checking services so that unhealthy services aren’t used. These are just a handful of important problems Consul addresses.

Consul solves the problem of service discovery and configuration. Built on top of a foundation of rigorous academic research, Consul keeps your data safe and works with the largest of infrastructures. Consul embraces modern practices and is friendly to existing DevOps tooling.

app-admin/consul ?

This is a RFC and interest call about the packaging and availability of consul for Gentoo Linux.

The latest version and live ebuilds are present in my overlay so if you are interested, please tell me (here, IRC, email, whatever) and I’ll consider adding it to the portage tree.

I want to test it !

Now that would be helpful to get some feedback about the usability of the current packaging. So far the ebuild features what I think should cover a lot of use cases :

  • full build from sources
  • customizable consul agent init script with reload, telemetry and graceful stop support
  • web UI built from sources and installation for easy deployment
# layman -a ultrabug
# emerge -av consul

Hope this interests some of you folks !

Gentoo Monthly Newsletter - May 2014 (June 04, 2014, 08:02 UTC)

The May 2014 GMN issue is now available online.

This month on GMN:

  • Interview with Gentoo developer Brian Dolbec (dol-sen)
  • Samba 4, sys-power/upower updates, infrastructure hosting needs
  • Latest Gentoo news, tips, interesting stats and much more.

June 02, 2014
Gentoo Monthly Newsletter: May 2014 (June 02, 2014, 21:00 UTC)

Gentoo News

Interview with Brian Dolbec (dol-sen)

by David Abbott

1. Hi Brian, tell us about yourself.

I’m a wannabe scientist/inventor that never did take the full plunge into that career path.
I’m married with 28 and 14 year old daughters, four dogs, one cat, several aquariums of fish…
And despite what many readers or other developers may expect or think: I’m not in an IT career. I’m a journeyman refrigeration mechanic with a gas ticket. I install, repair furnaces, rooftop heating/cooling equipment, computer room cooling systems etc.

2. Bring us back to your start with electronics and computers.

I’ve been taking things apart, seeing how they are built, and work since I was 9 or 10 years old.
Things from really old tube radios, appliances, etc.When I was in 7th grade, my teachers wife worked taking care of people in a care home. One of her patients was an electronics teacher crippled with polio. He asked a classmate and myself if we would to help him with things from repairing, modifying his HAM and CB radio equipment, to modifying his home built 3 wheel vehicle that he steered with buttons under his elbows.
Computer work started years later, my first machine was a used Atari 400 with a cassette player drive. Programming in basic. I had an apple IIe compatible for a year or so, then while returning to college, taking science (physics, chemistry) and computer programming courses (mostly coded in pascal) on a VAX 11 and/or x86 pc’s, my next one was an Atari 520ST (first production run) which I still have today.

3. How did you get involved with open source?

After installing gentoo, I had soon started working on porthole which was a new project at that time. I was also new to python and had not done any coding in many years. It was primarily porthole that brought me to doing work in gentoolkit, layman, portage and other tools in gentoo.

4. What path did you take to become a Gentoo developer?

I had been working around portage for many years with porthole development. Which led me to begin working on gentoolkit in order to create working api’s for other tools to use. It was that and layman work that got me into helping mentor GSOC projects. I first became a staffer as I was a coder, not an ebuild developer. It was one year later I took the plunge and completed the developer quiz and became a full developer.

5. Tell us about your mentor and the process to become a developer?

There have been many people over the years that I’ve learned from.
But my most important mentor in developing my coding skills has been Brian Harring
His knowledge of how to do things in an efficient, fast way continues to amaze and inspire me.

6. What aspects of Gentoo do we need to keep and what could we get rid of?

hmm… Keep the good coding skills and efforts into improving Gentoo as a whole, get rid of the major bikeshedding over who’s right and who’s wrong…

7. Tell us about Porthole (The portage frontend) http://porthole.sourceforge.net/ and what skills you learned from it?

Python programming, knowledge of data acquisition using portage’s API’s, learning to do things with less code, more adaptable and robust with less long term maintenance required. I’ve rewritten areas of porthole’s code several times as it evolved and grew. Sadly, I’ve been neglecting porthole these past few years. I keep getting distracted with other projects in need of help, re-writes, updates, or even new projects like gentoo-keys which was spawned from dev-python/pyGPG which I created to handle gpg signed list verification for layman. Layman’s code also spawned a small new python lib (dev-python/ssl-fetch) that will be used in several tools soon. I split that code out of layman to re-use in mirrorselect for fetching files from api.gentoo.org.

8. You have become a proficient Python programmer, how did you do it?

Coding, making mistakes, fixing them. Learning better faster ways to accomplish something from others.
But, one of my key strong points is my ability to quickly see the big picture. The details you can figure out along the way with help from others as the need arises. Many new programmers get stuck focusing on the details without knowing how they should be put together. Hint, think of a jigsaw puzzle, when you get one, you have the finished picture on the box to use as a reference of what it should look like. This makes it easier to figure out where a piece might fit. The same holds true for any programming task. You need to know what the end goal is and how it might fit together. Adjustments are made along the way so that you end up with a completed code block, then you move along to the next one.

9. Walk me through the steps you do to write python code, test, and your editor of choice etc.

see above answer… Current preferred editor is Geany, 2nd is Scite which I used for many years and still do for some things.

10. Catalyst (the tool used for building Gentoo releases) is in the process of a major overhaul, what has been done, who is helping you and what needs to be completed?

I got started working on catalyst so that the default location for the portage tree (gentoo ebuild tree) can be relocated. The catalyst code base was in sad shape with paths hard-coded throughout the code. It even had paths used as both a variable name and value in places. Its code base still had (questionable to poor) code copied from early portage code which has long since been replaced. The code had also been modified by the releng team which (not being proficient in python) used bad examples to modify its operation. The bulk of the rewrite work has and is being done by Trevor King and myself. With others contributing to improvements, additions to portions of it. Currently I’m in the middle of migrating all the changes from a development branch (3.0) into the master branch of the repository. Once that is caught up, the rewrites will continue. There are still too many areas of code to improve or rewrite to list them here.

11. Tell us about your other projects you are currently working on?

Gentoo-keys – A gpg key management and verification tool. Designed to manage all aspects of Gentoo’s gpg keys, developer keys and verification of things like the release media, commits to Gentoo’s ebuild tree, layman’s repositories etc.

Mirrorselect – a mirror selection tool for Gentoo. I did the 2.2 re-write and some additional work adding more features in the 2.2.1 release.

Ssl-fetch – A breakout lib which wraps dev-python/requests code and does verified ssl fetching of files and handles use of headers and timestamps to prevent re-downloading of data which hasn’t been modified.

pyGPG – A universal gnupg wrapper lib that is capable of mining all data available from gpg calls and puts that info into python available data types.

Layman – overlay management tool.

Portage – I am the current (temporary) lead after Zac took an extended break from gentoo. I am spear-heading a new plugin-sync system for it which will make portage more versatile and ease future maintenance and make it expandable with third party installable sync modules. You can look forward to a possible squashfs sync module. Work is being done to have Gentoo’s infrastructure be able to supply sqaushfs tree images. So encourage Micheal Gorny and the Gentoo infra team to complete that work.

Elogviewer – I’m maintaining the package, did code review for recent updates. I have a recent version bump to do at time of this writing.

Gentoolkit – Various python based modules, enalyze, equery, eclean, the new python based revdep-rebuild rewrite (some final debugging, fixes)

Catalyst – Gentoo Stage building tool, major re-write

A new small python based breakout lib for easy compression/decompression handling. It comes from my work in the catalyst rewrite, but could be useful in other tools. I have yet to create and name it as a standalone project.

12. What open source software can you not live without at home and at work?

dev-vcs/gitg, dev-util/geany, dev-vcs/git, Hexchat, xfce4 desktop environment,…

13. Which open source programs would you like to see developed?

gtk+:2 branch of gitg. It has gone to a gnome 3 look now which IMHO is yuk. It also lost the git blame feature currently in its re-write.

14. Age old question for Gentoo, how can we get more help?

Reducing the bikeshedding and name calling type attitudes present in some mail lists. Continue being an innovative leading Linux distribution building system.

15. Describe your desktop setup (WM/DE)?

Intel core-2 quad core based system with a shiny new SSD drive (Thank you Alec)
2 – 24 inch widescreen monitors
Basic xfce4 desktop, 14 virtual desktops, is a mix of Mac like toolbars and retro theme.
A hexchat window, toolbars, etc. in the left monitor, right monitor for main working apps windows, terminals

16. Tell us about your boxes and home network setup?

Not much to tell really. There’s my main desktop, an old 11 year old laptop, several printers. I have an old x86 box that I setup for a small server and router, but need to work on it. A hard drive failed on it due to a power failure. I have a 24 port gigabit switch. I still haven’t wired up this new house yet with lan everywhere. My wife and kids have some ipads, an Acer netbook.

17. What would be your dream job?

Working on some inventions, ideas I have for energy efficiency, earth friendly, and just plain cool ot fun :)

18. What gives you the most enjoyment within the Gentoo community?

Doing (hopefully) great coding work and having users really like what I’ve done to ease their work or save their system.
Mentoring students into doing better coding, being a more versatile developer.

19. What gives you the most enjoyment outside the Gentoo community?

Family

Help with samba-4 packages needed!

by Lars Wendler

Currently Gentoo’s samba team is severely understaffed. This has slowed down development of samba packages and its direct dependencies to a level where we cannot foresee when it is convenient to finally remove the mask on samba-4 and give it a wider range of testing from our users. There are a couple of automagic dependencies that need attention. Unfortunately samba upstream does very little to resolve these issues so we need people knowing the new build system of samba-4 to write patches for us. Furthermore samba-4 requires app-crypt/heimdal as kerberos provider which leads to packages blocking each other because they require app-crypt/mit-krb5 which cannot be installed together with heimdal.

This is a call for help getting as many blocker bugs from [1] fixed as possible. Once all these blockers are solved, unmasking samba-4 is the next logical step.

[1] https://bugs.gentoo.org/489762

Council News

This month the council addressed two issues brought up by the community.

In the aftermath of Heartbleed many are questioning the default configuration of packages like OpenSSH/OpenSSL, etc. If we had not enabled tls-heartbeat by default then Gentoo would have been immune to the recent troubles.

The council took up discussion, but felt that trying to make a one-size-fits-all policy wasn’t going to be practical. Maintainers were encouraged to follow upstream (which in the case of Heartbleed would have meant being vulnerable), but decisions are going to remain in the hands of individual maintainers. Specific issues can still be escalated to Council.

The other matter which came up concerned pkg-config files. Everybody can agree that upstream should be providing these when applicable, but there was disagreement over what should be done with upstream drops the ball. The crux of the argument was that not including them makes life more difficult for packages using the libraries on Gentoo, while including them can cause developers working on Gentoo to make assumptions that will cause problems on other distributions. The council decided that the current policy in the devmanual was not adequate and struck it down. In general maintainers will be given discretion to create pkg-config files not provided by upstream, but there will be guidelines around when this is done. The guidelines themselves need to be written, approved, and published to the devmanual.

Finally it was noted that election season is coming up, and the next Council meeting will be the last one of this term. Stay tuned for further details from the election team.

sys-power/upower update

>=sys-power/upower-0.99.0 has entered ~arch and has deprecated support for sys-power/pm-utils and hibernate/suspend in favor of using sys-apps/systemd.
If you suddenly notice that your favorite package no longer has capability for hibernate/suspend and you want them back, we have created a compatibility package sys-power/upower-pm-utils which will give you the old UPower back.
For example, Xfce 4.11+ has support for UPower 0.99 and it has copied the sys-power/pm-utils code from before UPower dropped it, and therefore hibernate/suspend should work with both versions, but this is likely untrue for most of the other packages.
Check out this forum post for more information.

Infrastructure News

Hosting sponsors needed
The Gentoo Infrastructure team is currently searching for hosting sponsors in Europe. We ask that sponsors contribute to Gentoo in one of two ways:

  1. A donation of at least two physical machines including space, power and 10Mbits of bandwidth (burstable to 50Mbit). This is the most common option that organizations prefer. Sponsors typically have existing dedicated space for their business and host hardware for Gentoo in that space.
  2. Donation of at least 12U space, 15A, and 10Mbits of bandwidth (burstable to 50Mbits).

In the latter case, the Gentoo Foundation can provide the server hardware (but not power, bandwidth, or rackspace / a rack.) In both cases we prefer the sponsor to provide remote hands for the machines.

Sponsors will received ads on ads.gentoo.org (the ad sidebar to the main site), postings on the sponsors page, as well as news items posted to www.gentoo.org.

Interested parties should contact infra@gentoo.org.

Sponsors often ask to host official Gentoo mirrors. Note that the Gentoo mirror network is not currently seeking new mirror sponsors at this time.
The gentoo infrastructure team has had significant operational problems with virtual machines and Gentoo Hardened. We see this as a pretty significant preference for physical hardware over solutions like Xen or VMWare.

Gentoo Developer Moves

Summary

Gentoo is made up of 236 active developers, of which 30 are currently away.
Gentoo has recruited a total of 798 developers since its inception.

Changes

The following developers have recently changed roles:

  • Jauhien Piatlicki joined the emacs, physics, science, mathematics and lxqt teams
  • Yury German joined the security team
  • Yixun Lan joined the proxy-maintainers, ARM and cjk teams
  • Peter Wilmott joined the ruby team
  • Julian Ospald joined the multilib and sound teams
  • Vlastimil Babka joined the kernel team
  • Michael Palimaka joined the lxqt team
  • Manuel Rueger joined the ARM team
  • Agostino Sarubbo left the KDE team
  • Brian Evans joined the MySQL team
  • Mikle Kolyada joined the embedded and dev-embedded teams.

Additions

The following developers have recently joined the project:

Moves

The following developers recently left the Gentoo project:
None this month

Portage

This section summarizes the current state of the portage tree.

Architectures 45
Categories 162
Packages 17471
Ebuilds 37518
Architecture Stable Testing Total % of Packages
alpha 3591 538 4129 23.63%
amd64 10762 6209 16971 97.14%
amd64-fbsd 0 1576 1576 9.02%
arm 2634 1722 4356 24.93%
arm64 436 30 466 2.67%
hppa 3051 488 3539 20.26%
ia64 3176 595 3771 21.58%
m68k 575 93 668 3.82%
mips 4 2379 2383 13.64%
ppc 6809 2388 9197 52.64%
ppc64 4313 876 5189 29.70%
s390 1460 332 1792 10.26%
sh 1656 402 2058 11.78%
sparc 4119 899 5018 28.72%
sparc-fbsd 0 319 319 1.83%
x86 11418 5259 16677 95.46%
x86-fbsd 0 3236 3236 18.52%

gmn-portage-stats-2014-06

Security

The following GLSAs have been released by the Security Team

GLSA Package Description Bug
201405-28 x11-wm/xmonad-contrib xmonad-contrib: Arbitrary code execution 478288
201405-27 dev-libs/libyaml LibYAML: Arbitrary code execution 505948
201405-26 net-misc/x2goserver X2Go Server: Privilege Escalation 497260
201405-25 dev-php/symfony Symfony: Information disclosure 444696
201405-24 dev-libs/apr Apache Portable Runtime, APR Utility Library: Denial of Service 339527
201405-23 media-libs/lib3ds lib3ds: User-assisted execution of arbitrary code 308033
201405-22 net-im/pidgin Pidgin: Multiple vulnerabilities 457580
201405-21 net-irc/charybdis Charybdis,ShadowIRCd: Denial of Service 449544
201405-20 media-libs/jbigkit JBIG-KIT: Denial of Service 507254
201405-19 app-crypt/mcrypt MCrypt: User-assisted execution of arbitrary code 434112
201405-18 net-misc/openconnect OpenConnect: User-assisted execution of arbitrary code 457068
201405-17 net-analyzer/munin Munin: Multiple vulnerabilities 412881
201405-16 dev-lang/mono Mono: Denial of Service 433768
201405-15 sys-apps/util-linux util-linux: Multiple vulnerabilities 359759
201405-14 dev-ruby/ruby-openid Ruby OpenID: Denial of Service 460156
201405-13 x11-libs/pango Pango: Multiple vulnerabilities 268976
201405-12 net-analyzer/ettercap Ettercap: Multiple vulnerabilities 340897
201405-11 app-backup/bacula Bacula: Information disclosure 434878
201405-10 dev-ruby/rack Rack: Multiple vulnerabilities 451620
201405-09 media-gfx/imagemagick ImageMagick: Multiple vulnerabilities 409431
201405-08 app-antivirus/clamav ClamAV: Multiple vulnerabilities 462278
201405-07 x11-base/xorg-server X.Org X Server: Multiple vulnerabilities 466222
201405-06 net-misc/openssh OpenSSH: Multiple vulnerabilities 231292
201405-05 net-misc/asterisk Asterisk: Denial of Service 504180
201405-04 www-plugins/adobe-flash Adobe Flash Player: Multiple vulnerabilities 501960
201405-03 net-irc/weechat WeeChat: Multiple vulnerabilities 442600
201405-02 net-libs/libsrtp libSRTP: Denial of Service 472302
201405-01 sys-fs/udisks udisks: Arbitrary code execution 504100

Package Removals/Additions

Removals

Package Developer Date
sci-geosciences/gempak pacho 03 May 2014
gnome-extra/evolution-kolab pacho 03 May 2014
www-apache/mod_ruby pacho 03 May 2014
x11-misc/suxpanel pacho 03 May 2014
kde-base/kdeartwork-sounds johu 09 May 2014
kde-base/kdnssd johu 09 May 2014
kde-base/kwallet johu 09 May 2014
games-puzzle/krosswordpuzzle johu 10 May 2014
app-portage/udept pacho 11 May 2014
media-libs/libj2k pacho 11 May 2014
media-gfx/cfe pacho 11 May 2014
media-gfx/yablex pacho 11 May 2014
app-admin/osiris pacho 11 May 2014
sys-power/cpufreqd pacho 11 May 2014
net-irc/ctrlproxy pacho 11 May 2014
x11-misc/pogo pacho 11 May 2014
sci-geosciences/openstreetmap-icons pacho 11 May 2014
dev-python/telepathy-python pacho 11 May 2014
media-tv/huludesktop pacho 11 May 2014
app-admin/lcap pacho 11 May 2014
www-apache/mod_chroot pacho 11 May 2014
dev-util/dissy pacho 11 May 2014
dev-libs/clens ulm 12 May 2014
dev-java/randomguid ulm 12 May 2014

Additions

Package Developer Date
net-wireless/openggsn zx2c4 01 May 2014
x11-misc/urxvt-font-size radhermit 02 May 2014
kde-misc/baloo-kcmadv dilfridge 02 May 2014
dev-ruby/dotenv-deployment graaff 03 May 2014
dev-java/headius-options tomwij 03 May 2014
gnome-extra/gnome-commander hwoarang 03 May 2014
mate-extra/caja-extensions tomwij 04 May 2014
media-gfx/eom tomwij 04 May 2014
x11-misc/mozo tomwij 04 May 2014
dev-ruby/descendants_tracker graaff 05 May 2014
gnome-extra/cinnamon-desktop tetromino 06 May 2014
gnome-extra/cinnamon-settings-daemon tetromino 06 May 2014
gnome-extra/cinnamon-session tetromino 06 May 2014
app-i18n/tagainijisho calchan 06 May 2014
dev-ruby/nio4r mrueg 07 May 2014
gnome-extra/cjs tetromino 07 May 2014
gnome-extra/cinnamon-menus tetromino 07 May 2014
app-crypt/paperkey mrueg 07 May 2014
dev-ruby/rinku mrueg 07 May 2014
gnome-extra/cinnamon-control-center tetromino 08 May 2014
net-wireless/cinnamon-bluetooth tetromino 08 May 2014
dev-python/aniso8601 radhermit 08 May 2014
dev-python/flask-restful radhermit 08 May 2014
dev-python/polib tetromino 09 May 2014
dev-db/soci jauhien 09 May 2014
dev-db/cppdb jauhien 09 May 2014
dev-python/sexpdata jauhien 10 May 2014
gnome-extra/cinnamon-screensaver tetromino 10 May 2014
sys-block/zram-init jauhien 10 May 2014
sci-chemistry/propka jlec 11 May 2014
dev-python/oslo-vmware vadimk 11 May 2014
sys-boot/winusb yac 11 May 2014
app-arch/xarchiver ssuominen 11 May 2014
dev-util/android-studio jauhien 11 May 2014
dev-ruby/fssm vikraman 11 May 2014
dev-ruby/compass vikraman 11 May 2014
dev-python/rax-scheduled-images-python-novaclient-ext prometheanfire 12 May 2014
dev-python/os-virtual-interfacesv2-python-novaclient-ext prometheanfire 12 May 2014
kde-misc/milou johu 12 May 2014
net-wireless/btcrack zerochaos 12 May 2014
dev-python/pymysql grknight 13 May 2014
app-arch/defluff tomwij 14 May 2014
sci-biology/update-blastdb jlec 14 May 2014
x11-misc/calise tomwij 14 May 2014
dev-ruby/pdf-core mrueg 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/priorityqueue mrueg 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/expression_parser mrueg 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/ae p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/ansi p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/brass p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/facets p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/lemon p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/qed p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/rubytest p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/rubytest-cli p8952 15 May 2014
dev-ruby/hashery p8952 15 May 2014
gnome-extra/cinnamon-translations tetromino 16 May 2014
net-libs/balde rafaelmartins 18 May 2014
dev-lang/rust jauhien 18 May 2014
sci-libs/libgeodecomp slis 19 May 2014
dev-java/netty-common tomwij 19 May 2014
dev-java/netty-buffer tomwij 19 May 2014
dev-ruby/rrdtool-bindings graaff 19 May 2014
app-leechcraft/lc-eleeminator maksbotan 20 May 2014
app-backup/snapper dlan 21 May 2014
dev-java/netty-transport tomwij 21 May 2014
games-strategy/0ad-data hasufell 21 May 2014
games-strategy/0ad hasufell 21 May 2014
www-servers/hiawatha hasufell 22 May 2014
www-apps/hiawatha-monitor hasufell 22 May 2014
media-fonts/ahem idella4 23 May 2014
x11-misc/sddm jauhien 24 May 2014
lxqt-base/liblxqt jauhien 25 May 2014
net-misc/lxqt-openssh-askpass jauhien 25 May 2014
lxqt-base/lxqt-qtplugin jauhien 25 May 2014
app-vim/gitgutter radhermit 25 May 2014

Bugzilla

The Gentoo community uses Bugzilla to record and track bugs, notifications, suggestions and other interactions with the development team.

Activity

The following tables and charts summarize the activity on Bugzilla between 01 May 2014 and 31 May 2014. Not fixed means bugs that were resolved as NEEDINFO, WONTFIX, CANTFIX, INVALID or UPSTREAM.
gmn-activity-2014-05

Bug Activity Number
New 1388
Closed 977
Not fixed 259
Duplicates 158
Total 5734
Blocker 5
Critical 18
Major 66

Closed bug ranking

The following table outlines the teams and developers with the most bugs resolved during this period

Rank Team/Developer Bug Count
1 Gentoo Security 109
2 Gentoo Linux Gnome Desktop Team 44
3 Gentoo Games 31
4 Gentoo KDE team 29
5 Gentoo's Team for Core System packages 26
6 Multilib team 24
7 Gentoo X packagers 21
8 Qt Bug Alias 20
9 Retirement Admin 19
10 Others 653

gmn-closed-2014-05

Assigned bug ranking

The developers and teams who have been assigned the most bugs during this period are as follows.

Rank Team/Developer Bug Count
1 Gentoo Linux bug wranglers 158
2 Gentoo Linux Gnome Desktop Team 93
3 Gentoo Security 53
4 Gentoo KDE team 47
5 Multilib team 41
6 Python Gentoo Team 35
7 Gentoo's Team for Core System packages 35
8 Default Assignee for New Packages 25
9 Qt Bug Alias 24
10 Others 876

gmn-opened-2014-05

Tip of the month

Would you like to know why a particular package is masked?
You can create a simple shell function like this:

whymask() {
    find /usr/portage/profiles/ -name '*.mask' -exec \
        awk -vRS= "/${*/\//.}/ {
                print \" \" FILENAME \":\", \"\n\" \"\n\" \$0 \"\n\"
        }" {} + | less
}

You can do `whymask sys-kernel/gentoo-sources` to get reasons as to why
a particular package is masked; very handy to quickly check something
up, especially for USE flag masks which Portage doesn’t explain.

You can do `whymask Gnome 3.12` to get the entire GNOME 3.12 mask,
piping it to `grep -v mask: > /etc/portage/package.unmask/gnome3` then
allows you to quickly update your GNOME 3.12 unmask; if you want this to
happen on sync, you can put this line in /etc/portage/postsync.d/gnome3
and make it executable such that it’ll be ran after every sync.

The magic trick here is that awk -vRS= “/…/” matches paragraphs; as
the record separator is empty, it takes the blank lines.
by Tom Wijsman

Heard in the community

Send us your favorite Gentoo script or tip at gmn@gentoo.org

Getting Involved?

Interested in helping out? The GMN relies on volunteers and members of the community for content every month. If you are interested in writing for the GMN or thinking of another way to contribute, please send an e-mail to gmn@gentoo.org.

Comments or Suggestions?

Please head over to this forum post.

Alexys Jacob a.k.a. ultrabug (homepage, bugs)
uWSGI v2.0.5.1 (June 02, 2014, 14:12 UTC)

This release is important to me (and my company) as it officially introduces a few features we developed for our needs and then contributed to uWSGI.

Special congratulations to my co-worker @btall for his first contribution and for those nice features to the metrics subsystem with many thanks as usual to @unbit for reviewing and merging them so quickly.

new features

  • graceful reload of mule processes (Credits: Paul Egan) : SIGHUP is now sent to mules instead of directly killing them, by default you have 60 seconds to react before a SIGKILL
  • –metrics-no-cores, –stats-no-cores, –stats-no-metrics : don’t calculate and process all those core related metrics (gevent anyone ?)
  • reset_after_push for metrics (Credits: Babacar Tall) : this metric attribute ensures that the metric value is reset to 0 or its hardcoded initial_value every time the metric is pushed to some external system (like carbon, or statsd)
  • new metric_set_max and metric_set_min helpers (Credits: Babacar Tall) : can be used to avoid having to call “metric_get“ when you need a metric to be set at a maximal or minimal value. Another simple use case is to use the “avg“ collector to calculate an average between some *max* and *min* set metrics. Available in C and python.

See the full changelog here, especially some interesting bugfixes.

June 01, 2014
Jauhien Piatlicki a.k.a. jauhien (homepage, bugs)
LXQt 0.7.0 is available in the tree (June 01, 2014, 19:28 UTC)

07 May of 2014 version 0.7.0 of LXQt was released. LXQt is a new Qt-based desktop environment -- the successor of LXDE and Razor-qt. This is a first release since the moment the developing was started.

Why another DE could you ask? Well, as I've mentioned it is not really the new one. Even more, it is the result of merging of two existing projects. The reason for LXDE team to switch to the new project was quite understandable: LXDE is based on GTK-2, and it is going to be deprecated and unmaintained. For many reasons Qt seemed to be much better alternative than GTK-3, hence LXDE-Qt project was started. Then people from Razor-qt joined it. The 0.5.2 release of Razor-qt is going to be the last one, the development of LXDE will be continued for a while, but the main forces of both teams are concentrated on LXQt now.

Now, switching to the Gentoo. I have imported ebuilds for LXQt-0.7.0 into the tree recently and ask you to test them and file bugs ). There is a meta package lxqt-base/lxqt-meta with USEs for optional dependencies and minimal USE flag for the case if you do not like openbox and want other window manager.

As display manager LXQt team suggests using of LightDM or SDDM, both available in the tree. The last one has an issue: it does not have ConsoleKit support, so if you want, you are welcome to add it. Upstream seems to be not interested in it, so we need to handle this downstream.

For me LXQt worked perfectly, it seems to be quite stable and usable already. I have encountered only one issue that affects me: LXQt-panel still lacks autohiding. But it should be added in the next release.

Currently ebuilds in the tree are tested under amd64, arm and x86 architectures on GNU/Linux. Upstream claims a FreeBSD support, so you are welcome to try it there. May be you'll need live ebuilds from the qt overlay to do so.

If you want to help with LXQt maintaining, you are welcome, just join recently created lxqt herd.

At the end I would like to say thanks to Harvey Mittens, Davide Pesavento, Manuel Rüger and other people who helped with getting LXQt into the tree.

P.S. For those who for some strange reason came to this post on LJ and are wondering what is this all about: posts with gentoo tag are syndicated to the Gentoo Planet and I'll use it to make announcements and just write random gentoo-related thoughts.

Paweł Hajdan, Jr. a.k.a. phajdan.jr (homepage, bugs)

If you tried upgrading from stable amd64 to ~amd64 or otherwise done a big update of perl, you probably hit this weird perl-cleaner slot conflict:

# perl-cleaner --all
!!! Multiple package instances within a single package slot have been pulled
!!! into the dependency graph, resulting in a slot conflict:

dev-lang/perl:0

  (dev-lang/perl-5.18.2:0/5.18::gentoo, installed) pulled in by
    =dev-lang/perl-5.18* required by (virtual/perl-IO-1.280.0:0/0::gentoo, ebuild scheduled for merge)
    ^              ^^^^^                                                                                                                                  
    dev-lang/perl:0/5.18=[-build(-)] required by (perl-core/version-0.990.800:0/0::gentoo, installed)
                 ^^^^^^^^                                                                                                              
    (and 7 more with the same problems)

  (dev-lang/perl-5.16.3:0/5.16::gentoo, ebuild scheduled for merge) pulled in by
    =dev-lang/perl-5.16* required by (virtual/perl-Package-Constants-0.20.0-r3:0/0::gentoo, installed)
    ^              ^^^^^                                                                                                                                  
    (and 6 more with the same problem)


This is bug #506616, and the solution is to run the following command:

perl-cleaner --all -- --backtrack=30

Read more »

May 24, 2014
Anthony Basile a.k.a. blueness (homepage, bugs)
Lilblue Linux: release 20140520 (May 24, 2014, 22:35 UTC)

A couple of days ago, I pushed out a new build of Lilblue Linux [1] which is my attempt to turn embedded Linux on its head and use uClibc [2] instead of glibc as the standard C library for a fully featured XFCE4 desktop for amd64. Its userland is built with Gentoo’s hardened toolchain, and the image ships with a kernel built using hardened-sources which include the Grsec/PaX patches for added security, but its main distinguishing feature from mainstream Gentoo is uClibc. Even though Lilblue is something of an experimental project which grew out of my attempt to get more and more packages to build against uClibc, the system works better than I’d originally expected and there are very few glitches which are uClibc specific. You get pretty much everything you’d expect in a desktop, including all your multimedia goodies, office software, games and browsers. mplayer2 works flawlessly!

But all is not well in the land of uClibc these days. It has been over two years since the last release, 0.9.33.2 on May 15, 2012, and there are about 80 commits sitting in the 0.9.33 branch, many of which address critical issues since 0.9.33.2. This causes problems for people building around uClibc, such as buildroot, and there has even been talk on the email lists of dropping uClibc as its main libc in favor of either glibc or musl [3]. Buildroot is maintaining about 50 backported patches, while Mike’s (aka vapier’s) latest patchset has 20. I seem to always have to insert a backported patch of my own here or there, or ask Mike to include it in his patchset.

For this release, I did something that I have mixed feelings about. Instead of 0.9.33.2 + backported patches, I used the latest HEAD of the 0.9.33 git branch. This saved me the trouble of getting more patches backported into a new revision of our 0.9.33.2 ebuild, or by “cheating” and putting the patches into /etc/portage/patches/sys-libs/uclibc, but it did expose a well known problem in uClibc, namely the problem of how its header files stack. A libc’s header files typically include one another to form a stack [4]. For example, on glibc, sched.h stacks as follows

    sched.h
        features.h
            sys/cdefs.h
                features.h
                bits/wordsize.h
            gnu/stubs.h
        bits/types.h
            features.h
            bits/wordsize.h
            bits/typesizes.h
        stddef.h
        time.h
            features.h
            stddef.h
            bits/time.h
                bits/types.h
                bits/timex.h
                    bits/types.h
            bits/types.h
            xlocale.h
        bits/sched.h

Here sched.h includes features.h, bits/types.h, stddef.h, time.h and bits/sched.h. In turn, features.h includes sys/cdefs.h and gnu/stubs.h, and so on. Each indentation indicates another level of inclusion. Circular inclusions are avoided by using #ifdef shields.

At least one reason for this structure is to abstract away differences in architectures and ABIs in an effort to present a hopefully POSIX compliant interface to the rest of userland. So, for example, glibc’s sys/syscall.h looks the same on amd64 as on mipsel, but it includes asm/unistd.h which is different on the two architectures. Each architecture’s asm/unistd.h have their own internal #ifdefs for the different ABIs proper to the architecture, and each #ifdef section in turn defines the values of the various syscalls appropriately for their ABI [5]. Another reason for this stacked inclusion is to make sure that certain definitions, macros or prototypes defined in one header are made available in another header in the same way as they are made available in a c file. This is the reason given, for instance, in the uClibc commit 2e2dc998 which I examine below.

Let’s see where uClibc’s header problems begin. Take a look at Gentoo’s bug #486782, where cdrtools-3.01_alpha17 fails to build against uClibc because its readcd/readcd.c defines “BOOL clone;” which collides with the definition of clone() in bits/sched.h [6]. Nowhere is sched.h included in readcd.c, instead bits/sched.h gets pulled in indirectly because stdio.h is included! Comment 7 reveals the stacking problem. stdio.h’s stacking is complex, but following just the bad chain, we see that stdio.h includes bits/uClibc_stdio.h which includes bits/uClibc_mutex.h which includes pthread.h which includes sched.h which includes bits/sched.h — wheh! If you’re wondering what stdio.h should have to do with sched.h, then you see the problem: too much information is being exposed here. Joerg’s comment on the bug pretty much sums it up: “The related include files (starting from what stdio.h includes) most likely expose the problem because they seem to expose implementation details that do not belong to the scope of visibility of the using code.”

Back to my bump from 0.9.33.2 to the HEAD of the 0.9.33 branch. This bump unexpectedly exposed bugs #510766 and #510770. Here we find that =media-libs/nas-1.9.4 and =app-text/texlive-core-2012-r1, both of which build just fine against 0.9.33.2, fail against HEAD 0.9.33 because of a name collision with abs(). Unlike the case with cdrtools, where the blame is squarely on uClibc, I think this is a case of enough blame to go around. Both of those packages define abs() as a macro even though it is supposed to be a function prototyped in stdlib.h, as per POSIX.1-2001 [7]. At least nas tries to check if abs() has been already defined as a macro, but its still not enough of a check to avoid the name collision. Unfortunately, given its archaic imake system, its not as easy as just adding AC_CHECK_FUNCS([abs]) to configure.ac. texlive-core at least uses GNU autotools, but its collection of utilities define abs() in several different places making a fix messy. On the other hand, why do we suddenly have stdlib.h being pulled in after those macros with HEAD 0.9.33 whereas we didn’t with release 0.9.33.2? It turns out to be uClibc’s tiny commit 2e2dc998 which I quote here:

	sched.h: include stdlib.h for malloc/free
	Signed-off-by: Bernhard Reutner-Fischer <rep.dot.nop@gmail.com>

	diff --git a/libc/sysdeps/linux/common/bits/sched.h b/libc/sysdeps/linux/common/bits/sched.h
	index 7d6273f..878550d 100644
	--- a/libc/sysdeps/linux/common/bits/sched.h
	+++ b/libc/sysdeps/linux/common/bits/sched.h
	@@ -109,6 +109,7 @@ struct __sched_param
	 /* Size definition for CPU sets.  */
	 # define __CPU_SETSIZE	1024
	 # define __NCPUBITS	(8 * sizeof (__cpu_mask))
	+# include <stdlib.h>
	 
	 /* Type for array elements in 'cpu_set_t'.  */
	 typedef unsigned long int __cpu_mask;

Both packages pull in stdio.h after their macro definition of abs(). But now stdio.h, which pulls in bits/sched.h, further pulls in stdlib.h with the function prototype of abs() and … BOOM! … we get

/usr/include/stdlib.h:713:12: error: expected identifier or '(' before 'int'
/usr/include/stdlib.h:713:12: error: expected ')' before '>' token

Untangling the implementation details is a going to be a thorny problem. And, given uClibc’s faltering release schedule schedule, things are probably not going to get better soon. I have looked at the issue a bit, but not enough to start unraveling it. Its easier just to apply hacky patches to the odd package here and there than to rethink uClibc’s internal implementations. If we are going to start rethinking implementation, the musl [8] is much more exciting. uClibc is used in lots of embedded systems and the header issue is not going to be a show stopper for it or for Liblue, but it does make alternatives look like musl more attractive.

References:

[1] https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Project:Hardened_uClibc/Lilblue

[2] http://www.uclibc.org

[3] See Petazzoni’s email to the uClibc community.

[4] I wrote a little python script to generate these stacks since creating them manually . You can download it from my dev space: header-stack.py. Note that the stacking is influenced by #ifdef’s throughout, eg #ifdef __USE_GNU, which the script ignores, but it does give a good starting place for how the stacking goes.

[5] As of glibc 2.17, on mips, asm/unistd.h defines the various __NR_* values in a flat file with three #ifdefs sections for _MIPS_SIM_ABI32, _MIPS_SIM_ABI64 and _MIPS_SIM_NABI32, respectively ABI=o32, n64 and n32. Using my script from [4], the stacking looks as follows:

    sys/syscall.h
        asm/unistd.h
            asm/sgidefs.h
        bits/syscall.h
            sgidefs.h

In contrast, on amd64, each ABI is broken out further into their own file, with asm/unistd_32.h, asm/unistd_x32.h or asm/unistd_64.h included into asm/unistd.h for __i386__, __ILP32__, or __ILP64__ respectively. Here the stacking is

    sys/syscall.h
        asm/unistd.h
            asm/unistd_32.h
            asm/unistd_x32.h
            asm/unistd_64.h
        bits/syscall.h

Remember, on both architectures, sys/syscall.h are identical, and that is the file you should include in your c programs, not any of the asm/* which often carry warnings not to include them directly.

[6] man 2 clone

[7] man 3 abs

[8] http://www.musl-libc.org/

May 23, 2014
Alexys Jacob a.k.a. ultrabug (homepage, bugs)
rsyslog v7.6.3 (May 23, 2014, 16:13 UTC)

This version bump was long overdue sorry and it has happened only thanks to the great work of Thomas D. aka @Whissi, thanks again mate.

Please read carefully because this version introduces major ebuild changes, you’ll probably have to adapt your current configuration !

ebuild changes

"/var/log/syslog" log file is now deprecated

   Beginning with rsyslog-7.6, the "/var/log/syslog" log file will no
   longer being written per default. We are considering this file as
   deprecated/obsolet for the typical user/system.
   The content from this log file is still availble through other
   (dedicated) log files, see

     - /var/log/cron.log
     - /var/log/daemon.log
     - /var/log/mail.log
     - /var/log/messages

   If you really need the old "/var/log/syslog" log file, all you have to
   do is uncommenting the corresponding configuration directive in
   "/etc/rsyslog.d/50-default.conf".

   If you do so, don't forget to re-enable log rotation in
   "/etc/logrotate.d/rsyslog", too.
  • An additional input socket in /var/empty/dev/log (default chroot
    location) will be created per default
  • brand new and modern init script

rsyslog-7.6.3

Coming from the rsyslog release announcement page, this is what happened with the 7.6 branch release :

With 7.6 being the successor of the 7.5 development branch, everything that has been added there has now found its way into the stable version.

The major additions consist of :
- imrelp/omrelp now support TLS & (zip) compression
- impstats is now emitting resource usage counters, can directly emit delta values and can now be bound to a ruleset
- mmpstrucdata is a new module to parse RFC5424 structured data into JSON message properties
- mmutf8fix is a new module to fix invalid UTF-8 sequences
- mmsequence is a new module that helps with action load balancing
- new defaults for main/ruleset queues to be more enterprise-like

Also the new stable version has undergone a lot of bug fixes, performance improvements and optimizations that make rsyslog 7.6 a lot more reliable and performing than before.

Anthony Basile a.k.a. blueness (homepage, bugs)

I hate being watched as much as the next person. Even the NSA loves its privacy otherwise it would be a transparent organization. What’s frightening and exciting about the technology we’re building today is that we are poised on a pivot point between extremes: deep invasion of our privacy and wide scale efforts to protect it. For those of you who don’t know the Tor Project [1] you really should look into it. Encrypted communication hides what you are saying from third party eavesdropping, but it does not hide who’s doing the talking, ie. it cannot hide the identity of one of the parties and so does not preserve your anonymity. If you decide to aim your browser at https://www.google.com/ then you can remain fairly certain that no one else is watching what you are googling for: you know, and google knows. But unfortunately, so does anyone google decides to tell! Given some of the exceptionally coercive methods governments use to make their demands [3], you might as well just announce your browsing habits publicly and be done with it.

Here’s where tor steps in. It doesn’t just encrypt your traffic, but also bounces it around the world via tor relays in such a way that even the nodes themselves can’t expose the origin of the traffic. Thus, tor provides its users with pretty good anonymity [4]. Now when google looks at its logs, it won’t see your ip address, but the ip address of one of the tor exit nodes. These are themselves publicly known [5], but the original ip from where the traffic is coming remains hidden. I’ve been using tor since about 2005. In July 2007, a tor operator in Germany [6] was arrested. Luckily his computers were not confiscated, but they could have been. The police wouldn’t have gotten much off of them, but there would have been the private keys and some other “evidence.” Running tor or any system of anonymity is not illegal, and it should never be illegal as it is in some countries, but today the line between what is legal and what powers governments will abuse has been blurred if not erased entirely. 2007 was also about the time the cloud computing was catching on, so I got the idea of creating a micro Linux distribution whose only purpose was to house a tor relay in an environment that maximizes security and privacy. The image boots from an ISO into ram, any keys or configs are scp-ed in, and upon power down … poof! … nothing to see here, move along. This was also about the time that I was getting involved with hardened Gentoo development and I met up with Magnus Granberg (zorry) who was working on migrating toolchain hardening from gcc-3 to gcc-4. I was teaching a course on embedded Linux, primarily building systems with uClibc and buildroot, and so tor-ramdisk was born [7]. I originally targeted only i686, but later added amd64 and mips32r2 for router boards like the Mikrotik RB450G.

So what goes into tor-ramdisk? You can read the build scripts [8] for details, but basically the kernel is Gentoo’s hardened-sources kernel with PaX and Grsec turned on full force. A minimal userland is provided by a crippled busybox with most of its applets turned off. You need openssl for tor itself as well as openssh which provides for scp-ing keys and config files in and out of the image. Tor critically depends on the time being right, so I used openntpd for synchronization. You also need a good source of entropy for key generation and encryption, which is always a problem on embedded systems [9], so haveged is used shore up the kernel’s /dev/random. Finally we need uClibc and libevent. I cheat a little and build on uClibc virtual machines, so I can just copy over the needed libraries rather than cross compiling them. Everything is built using Gentoo’s hardened toolchains and so all the ELFs binaries have SSP, PIE + ASLR, relro, bind_now and other security goodies [10]. For i686 and amd64, kernel and userland are bundled up in a bootable ISO image, while for mips I embed the initramfs in the bootlable Linux image which can be delivered via tftp. When the system boots, the user is presented with a menu driven system on tty1 to configure and start tor. The menu is a shell script spawned by init as “tty1::respawn:/bin/setup”. On tty2, tty3 amd tty3 we have, respectively, the output of nmeter (ascii based system usage meter provided by busybox), ntpd and haveged.

I don’t know why I haven’t blogged about tor-ramdisk before on Planet Gentoo, but it is a Gentoo “derivative.” It is also popular project, at least according to freecode.com. The i686 image is the most popular, followed by the amd64, with several hundred downloads per release. I’ve stopped producing the mips32r2 image because no one was using it, even though it was the most fun to build! There have been suggestions for new features but I’ve tended to resist because I like the ~6 MB image. If you can think of something I can add without growing that image much, send patches my way!

 

 

References:

[1] https://www.torproject.org/. The Gentoo package is net-misc/tor.

[2] “fairly certain” but not 100% certain as we recently learned from CVE-2014-0160, aka the “heartbleed” bug. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heartbleed

[3] You can read the story of lavabit’s owner as told by him at http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/20/why-did-lavabit-shut-down-snowden-email

[4] There are attacks against tor so it isn’t perfect, but it is by far the best anonymity software out there. See the wiki page on tor for its weaknesses: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tor_(anonymity_network)

[5] There are various lists of exit and relay nodes. For a live list, check out http://torstatus.blutmagie.de/

[6] http://www.cnet.com/news/tor-anonymity-server-admin-arrested/

[7] The main development site is http://opensource.dyc.edu/tor-ramdisk. I announce releases at https://freecode.com/projects/tor-ramdisk.

[8] https://gitweb.torproject.org/tor-ramdisk.git

[9] See Josh Ayers’ email to the tor-ramdisk list http://opensource.dyc.edu/pipermail/tor-ramdisk/2014-February/000119.html.

[10] You can read a little bit about these hardening techniques from the “Project Description” of a related project, Lilblue Linux: https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Project:Hardened_uClibc/Lilblue

 

May 20, 2014
Michael Palimaka a.k.a. kensington (homepage, bugs)
Plasma Next on Gentoo (May 20, 2014, 18:12 UTC)

As you may have heard, the KDE release structure is evolving. The process is already well under way, with the second beta of the reusable KDE frameworks and first beta of the next-generation Plasma workspace already released.

Please note that while usable, Plasma Next is definitely not yet ready for production. For the adventurous, everything needed can be found in the KDE overlay.

If you do decide to try it out, feel free to file bugs, send pull requests, or just drop us a line on mail/irc with your feedback. It’s definitely appreciated, and numerous improvements have already been made thanks to efforts of our users.

Otherwise, enjoy the screenshot and stay tuned for the next release.

plasma-next

May 14, 2014
Alexys Jacob a.k.a. ultrabug (homepage, bugs)
mongoDB v2.6.1 (May 14, 2014, 09:17 UTC)

This is a great pleasure to announce the version bump of mongoDB to the brand new v2.6 stable branch !

This bump is not trivial and comes with a lot of changes, please read carefully as you will have to modify your mongodb configuration files !

ebuild changes

As a long time request and to be more in line with upstream’s recommendations (and systemd support) I moved the configuration of the mongoDB daemons to /etc so make sure to adapt to the new YAML format.

  • the mongodb configuration moved from /etc/conf.d/mongodb to the new YAML formatted /etc/mongodb.conf
  • the mongos configuration moved from /etc/conf.d/mongos to the new YAML formatted /etc/mongos.conf
  • the MMS agent configuration file has moved to /etc/mms-agent.conf

The init scripts also have been taken care of :

  • new and modern mongodb, mongos and mms-agent init scripts
  • their /etc/conf.d/ configuration files are only used to modify the init script’s behavior

highlights

The changelog is long and the goal of this post is not to give you an already well covered topic on the release notes but here are my favorite features :

  • MongoDB preserves the order of the document fields following write operations.
  • A new write protocol integrates write operations with write concerns. The protocol also provides improved support for bulk operations.
  • MongoDB can now use index intersection to fulfill queries supported by more than one index.
  • Index Filters to limit which indexes can become the winning plan for a query.
  • Background index build allowed on secondaries.
  • New cleanupOrphaned command to remove orphaned documents from a shard.
  • usePowerOf2Sizes is now the default allocation strategy for all new collections.
  • Removed upward limit of 20 000 connections for the maxIncomingConnections for mongod and mongos.
  • New cursor.maxTimeMS() and corresponding maxTimeMS option for commands to specify a time limit.

Make sure you follow the official upgrade plan to upgrade from a previous version, this release is not a simple drop-in replacement.

thanks

Special thanks go to Johan Bergström for his continuous efforts and responsiveness as well as Mike Limansky and Jason A. Donenfeld.